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The concept of effective population size should now seem comfortable. This section will focus on putting models into practice in order to estimate the effective population size. This requires a shift in perspective from using models to develop expectations about allele frequencies to using models to explain past patterns in allele frequencies. Working through a detailed example of estimating the effective population size will highlight the distinctions between two definitions of the effective population size. This section will also introduce a new definition of the effective population size used widely for species with continuous distributions that lack discrete geographic population boundaries. In addition, the effective population sizes of nuclear and organelle genomes will be compared.

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