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since each of the independent —-— pairs of lineages can coalesce. Dividing continuous time in generations (j) by 2N yields a continuous time scale (t = j/(2N)) that can be used to describe coalescent trees. Multiplying the continuous time scale by 2N gives time to coalescence in units of population size. E refers to expected and T refers to time to coalescence so that E(Tn) is the expected or average time to coalescence for n lineages. The basic patterns seen in all coalescent trees apply to populations of all sizes, although the absolute time for coalescent events does depend on N. Values on the left are one realization of coalescent waiting times. Genealogy is not drawn to scale.

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