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The result is that FST is expected to be higher for Y-chromosome and organelle loci because their effective population size is smaller (see Fig. 4.15). Compared to diploid nuclear loci, Y-chromosome and mitochondrial loci have levels of FST four-fold higher when all types of loci share a common migration rate. The greater level of divergence among subpopulations for the Y-chromosome and organelle loci comes about strictly because of differences in the autozygosity for the loci that produced increased rates of fixation or loss due to genetic drift. See Hu and Ennos (1999) and Hamilton and Miller (2002) for more details and references.

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