This equation states that eight times the substitution rate multiplied by time is related to the amount of divergence we expect to see between two DNA sequences. For two DNA sequences that were originally identical by descent, we expect that each site has a 3at chance of substitution. Since there are two sequences, there is a 6at chance of a site being divergent between the two sequences. If we set expected divergence K = 6at, then we notice K is close to the 8at above. In fact, K is 3/4 of the expression for 8at, so that

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