generations as N gets large. (To see these results set p = in equation 3.40 and evaluate the expressions as N increases toward infinity.) The average time to fixation also has a large variance, so the standard deviation of the number of generations to fixation is expected to be about half of the mean or 2.15Ne generations (Kimura & Ohta 1969b; Narain 19 70; Kimura 19 70, 1983a).

For example, in a population of N = 1000, the average time to loss is about 15 generations (assuming N

—e = 1) but the average time to fixation for those

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