N

For two lineages in different demes, the average time to coalescence is the sum of the average time needed to migrate into the same deme and the average time until coalescence once the lineages are in the same deme. Since the chance of migration into the same deme is 2m—1—, the average time for two lineages d -1

to migrate into the same deme is d -1 2m

The average

Solving these two equations (see Math box 4.2) leads, respectively, to:

(see Slatkin 1987b; Strobeck 1987; Nordborg 1997; Wakeley 1998).

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