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These expressions show that the increase or decrease in allele frequencies depends on a comparison of the average fitness of genotypes that contain a certain allele (the quantity in the numerator), called the marginal fitness, and the average fitness of all genotypes in the population. A larger marginal fitness occurs when individuals with genotypes that make up the marginal fitness have higher viability for a given allele frequency. Table 6.3 summarizes the key quantities used to construct expected genotype and allele frequencies after one generation of viability selection.

As in the case of clonal reproduction, the change in allele frequency over one generation is given by Ap = pt+1 - pt. For sexual reproduction, pq[p(w.. - w. ) + q(w. - w )1

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