The total population allele frequency = p

Figure A.2 An abstract representation of 16 mouse populations. The total population (the entire rectangle) is composed of a series of smaller, discrete populations (the individual ellipses), sometimes called subpopulations. Each subpopulation has its own frequency of the A allele, indicated by p. The entire population also has an exact value for the frequency of the A allele, which can be estimated by sampling some subpopulations and then taking the average and variance of the pj values. Here eight subpopulations are sampled to estimate the allele frequency in the total population as H = 0.4976, the standard deviation (SD) = 0.0272, and the standard error (SE) of the mean = 0.0096.

populations by adding up all of the p i observations and dividing by the total number of observations. In notation, the mean or average allele frequency among the populations sampled would be

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