2G 4G 6G 8G IGG Generation

Figure 4.8 Allele frequencies, hierarchal heterozygosities, and fixation indices from a simulation of a subdivided population. Each subpopulation contained 10 individuals. The rate of gene flow was m = 0.2 in (a) and m = 0.01 in (b). The allele frequencies are shown for six randomly chosen subpopulations out of the 200 subpopulations in the simulation. The heterozygosities and fixation indices were calculated from all 200 subpopulations.

where i indicates a single subpopulation. The average heterozygosity of the two demes is based on taking the heterozygosity within each subpopulation and then averaging:

In contrast, the heterozygosity in the total population is

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