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Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Current Knowledge of Tempel s Coma

In the next two sections, we discuss what is known from previous observations about the composition and structure of Tempel 1's coma. Unfortunately, the total amount of archival data is small, and much of this is unpublished, because the low-activity comet 9P Tempel 1 is rarely bright as seen from the Earth and thus is not a favorite target of observers. Fortunately, the 2005 apparition is the next good one, so extensive ground-based observations can be obtained in support of the DI encounter.

Height of Masseter Origin

This is used here as an important feature relating to masseter muscle leverage that is, it is implied that the shorter the index, the greater the leverage. This character is defined using the index zygomaticoalveolar height relative to orbitoalveolar height (Kimbel et al., 1984). The results and allocations for the fossil hominins and extant African apes have been taken directly from Strait et al. (1997) and Strait and Grine (2001), while the author generated the indices for Pongo from unpublished data. Most are considered as having a low origin for the master (an index of over 56), which is the primitive condition. Only Pongo with a mean of 57.2 (n 19), Australopithecus, and species within Paranthropus, are considered to have a high origin (see Strait et al., 1997 Kimbel et al., 1984).

RNA Aptamers Directed Against Synthetic Oligosaccharides

Recently, in vitro selection of RNA aptamers against chemically synthesized oligosaccharides derived from naturally occurring glycosyl residues were systematically investigated in our laboratory (M. Milovnikova, unpublished). A pool of RNA oligonucleotides obtained from synthetic DNA containing a 50-nucleotide-long random sequence was used for this study. Different tri-, tetra-, penta-, and heptasaccharides (Fig. 5) were immobilized via a carbohydrate linker containing a cleavable, S-S-linkage on Sepharose matrix and alternatively on glass surface. After interaction with a pool of about 1013 RNA molecules with random sequences, the oligosaccharide RNA complexes were eluted from the matrix by cleavage of the disulfide bond. This procedure was

Historical Range Modifications

The present distribution pattern of Lycaena helle reflects demands for cool climatic conditions. From this we can assume a historically wide distribution over the major lowlands of Central Europe. We hypothesise two possible scenarios for the species' historical range modifications (1) a colonisation of Central Europe from extra-Mediterranean and Eastern European refugia or (2) a wide distribution even during the glacial period. In both scenarios, a restriction of a former distribution range takes place. The first scenario would be in accordance with the butterfly Proclossiana eunomia, which represents similar ecological requirements (Neve 1996). However, the second scenario cannot be ruled out as fossil records (e.g. from pollen, charcoal fragments and the elytra of beetles, Huntley and Birks 1983 Coope 1994 Willis and van Andel 2004) support the idea that climatic conditions and basic habitat requirements for Lycaena helle (such as the larval food plant) were present during this...

Life History Variables

In the wild, adult male L. catta become sexually mature around 3 years of age, and some disperse at that time, while others remain in the group until they are four (Gould, 2006 Koyama et al., 2002 Sussman, 1992). Koyama et al. observed some 2-year-old males disperse at his study area at Berenty. Two-year-old dispersal, like 2-year-old female births in that area of Berenty, may be a reflection of the rich resources, and water provisioning which does not occur in other areas of the reserve, i.e., sexual maturity in some animals may occur at an accelerated pace under certain favorable conditions. Also variable is the number of times a male might disperse in his lifetime Koyama reported that male tenure varied between 1 and 7 years during his 10-year study, and at Beza Mahafaly, some males tend to disperse almost annually, while others can remain in one group for several years (Gould, unpublished data Sussman, 1992). Sussman (1992) notes that on average, males migrate to another group...

Testing the Hypothesis Datasets

A Data for polymorphisms at the ME locus partly unpublished Samples 1-29 are monomorphic for one allele, samples 30-61 monomorphic for another allele a Data for polymorphisms at the ME locus partly unpublished Samples 1-29 are monomorphic for one allele, samples 30-61 monomorphic for another allele

Body Size Canine Size and Testis Size

Body mass for brown lemur species is in the middle range for extant lemurs, with populations ranging between 1.8 and 2.4 kg in mean body mass (Kappeler, 1990, 1991 Glander et al., 1992 Gerson, 2000 Johnson et al., 2005 Johnson, unpublished data). Notably, variation is greater within subspecies than among them. Populations in drier western habitats are considerably smaller than those found in humid eastern forests (Albrecht et al., 1990 Godfrey et al., 1990). For example, in E. f. rufus, mean body mass in western populations from Anjamba is 1.8 kg (Gerson, 1999, 2000), while mean weight at Ranomafana in the east is 2.2 kg (Glander et al., 1992 Johnson et al., 2005). These ecogeographic size differences have been observed across lemur taxa and may be related in complex ways to variation in climate, seasonality, and forest productivity (Albrecht et al., 1990).

Possibilities of Simplifying the Existing Bacterial Translational Apparatus

In early times of life, translation of mRNAs started just at the 5'-end with a sense codon, later with a special initiation codon AUG, but without a 5'-untranslated region and a Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence is complementary to the 3'-end ofthe 16S ribosomal RNA and should ensure by base pairing the effective formation ofthe ribosome-mRNA complex. In contrast to general belief, on average only 55 bacterial transcripts with a 5'-untranslated sequence contain a Shine-Dalgarno sequence.10 Nondissociated 70S ribosomes can initiate translation using AUG codons located at or near the 5'-end, preferentially starting at the first up to the third nucleotide position of an mRNA.11 In fact, the commonly used translation ofpoly(U) into poly(Phe) uses this type of ancient initiation without even an AUG codon at the 5'-end. In order to describe the potential of minimizing a modern bacterial translational apparatus, we will assume that the translation of all transcripts will...

Small Interfering RNAs Chemical Modifications

Been described (Dorsett and Tuschl 2004). In particular, siRNAs that have been modified with 2 -fluoro (fluoro) pyrimidines exhibited enhanced activity in cell culture as compared to 2 -OH-containing siRNAs. Interestingly, 2 -F-modified siRNA also exhibited activity in mice delivered via the hydrodynamic trans-fection method (Layzer et al. 2004). Using oligonucleotides containing the T7 promoter sequence, several siRNAs with uniform 2- modifications have been transcribedinvitro, anda2 -fluoro pyrimidine-modified siRNA against mouse TNF-a exhibited in vitro and in vivo activity (M. Sioud, unpublished data).

Future Habitat Decline and Loss of Genetic Uniqueness

Projecting the CEM onto the CCM3 climate change scenario, our model suggests a complete loss of climatically suitable habitats for Lycaena helle on its Western distribution border, except for a few exclaves of potentially suitable areas over the Pyrenees, the Massif Central, the Jura and parts of the Alps. This implies two effects (1) an immediate range loss involving both population numbers and their genetic diversity and (2) more frequent local extinctions of populations due to stochastic processes by increasing habitat fragmentation (cf. Hanski 2005). The direct loss of distinct population groups would imply the loss of a large part of the genetic diversity, including numerous private alleles, which are exclusively present in these populations and will not be preserved in any other populations over the entire European range (Habel et al. unpublished data).

Conservation Status

The conservation status of H. aureus and H. simus may be worse than previously reported (Mittermeier et al., 1994). Both species not only have restricted ranges but also occur in extremely patchy distribution (Irwin et al., 2005 Mutschler and Tan, 2003). Consequently, there is no reliable population estimate for either species. Deforestation and fragmentation continue to be a major cause for concern. Hunting and exploitation of bamboo by local people also have contributed to the general population decline. In the case of H. simus, a conservation action plan is needed immediately to develop management strategies safeguarding the species from extinction. In RNP, H simus may be the rarest diurnal lemur. Despite numerous survey efforts aimed to locate additional groups outside of Talatakely (Parcel III), only one other group was found in Miaranony (Parcel I) (Arrigo-Nelson and Wright, 2004 Ratelolahy et al., 2006 C. Tan, unpublished data). Currently, there are no viable captive breeding...

Conservation Situation

1995 Irwin et al., 2005 Banks et al., in press). P. verreauxi is on the order of 6 to 100 times more densely packed (Richard, 2003) and P. tattersalli is intermediate at 17-28 individuals km2 (Vargas et al., 2002). Second, rainforest sifakas appear much less able to live in human-dominated landscapes. It is common, where they are not hunted, to find P. verreauxi in small forest patches near villages and water sources. This is likely due to small home range requirements, and tolerance of human-favored tree species (e.g., mango, Mangifera indica). The same is not true of rainforest sifakas P. diadema at Tsinjoarivo do not range in human-dominated forest patches (usually dominated by Eucalyptus and Pinus) but require endemic forest trees and a minimum patch size of around 25 ha (Irwin, unpublished data). Third, the dry forest sifakas' predisposition to cross open areas gives them a demographic resiliency in fragmented habitat which rainforest taxa may not share.

What Are Action Potentials

Figure 1 Stereotypic AP of a mature neuron an AP recorded from a Rohon-Beard cell of a 2-day-old zebra fish embryo is shown (Pineda and Ribera, unpublished data). Several AP properties that are defined in 'Glossary' are illustrated in the figure. Figure 1 Stereotypic AP of a mature neuron an AP recorded from a Rohon-Beard cell of a 2-day-old zebra fish embryo is shown (Pineda and Ribera, unpublished data). Several AP properties that are defined in 'Glossary' are illustrated in the figure.

Reconstructing Plasma Osmolarity At The Origin Of Vertebrates

Although estimation of the plasma osmolarity of the ancestor of all vertebrates (i.e., the root node of Fig. 1) is not the focus of this chapter, we will comment briefly on the value reconstructed by squared-change parsimony. As noted in Appendix 3, for the root node and only the root node, this value is identical to the value computed by Felsenstein's (1985) independent contrasts procedure. This is convenient, because a formal analytical procedure for putting a 95 confidence interval on the root node constructed by independent contrasts has recently been developed (T. Garland, Jr., and A. R. Ives, unpublished). Considering all 172 terminal taxa, the squared-change parsimony estimate for the root node of the entire phylogeny is 644 mOsm with a 95 confidence interval of 467 - 821 mOsm under the assumption, as elsewhere in our computations, that all of the polytomies in Figure 1 are actually hard (see Discussion) . These values can be compared with the simple (nonphylogenetic) mean of...

Priorities For The Future

About 15 years ago, only 7 of breeding age males had copulated (Hu, 1990). Although this has increased significantly, the proportion of adult giant pandas that actually reproduce (especially through natural mating) still remains quite low (see Fig. 19.3). One estimate has only about 58.3 of males (14 of 24) in the contemporary population being able to mate naturally (R. Hou, unpublished data). And, despite advanced technologies that enable sophisticated assisted breeding, genetic analysis, enhanced communication among centres and more feasible animal transport, only about 25 of the breeding population

Other Epigenetic Ore Mineralization in Impact Structures

Other epigenetic Pb-Zn (or Zn only) mineralization in impact structures has been reported (Grieve and Masaitis 1994) from the Crooked Creek and Decaturville structures of 7 and 6 kilometers diameter, respectively, and from Serpent Mound (8 km diameter) in the USA, as well as from Kara in Russia (65 km diameter). Small amounts of pyrite mineralization are known from the Beyenchime-Salaatin (8 km diameter) and the Kara and Ust-Kara (65 and 25 km, 73 Ma) structures in Russia. Mercury has been detected in the breccias of the Russian Puchezh-Katunki and Karla structures (80 km and 12 km diameters, respectively), and some agate has been described from impact breccias in Ilyenits (4.5 km) in the Ukraine (Gurov et al. 1998), from Saaksjarvi (6 km, ca. 560 Ma) in Finland (Kinnunen and Lindqvist 1998), and in suevite from Bosumtwi (10.5 km diameter, ca. 1 Ma) in Ghana (these authors, unpublished information).

Taxa And Distribution

Within P. diadema, four subspecies have been traditionally recognized perri-eri, candidus, diadema, and edwardsi. These four types of diademed sifaka are allopatric, distributed along a north-south gradient, and easily distinguished by virtue of their distinct and colorful pelages. P. d. perrieri, the northernmost taxon, has the smallest distribution, being restricted to the Analamera Special Reserve and small forest fragments to the west. P. d. candidus has a slightly larger range, from the Marojejy massif in the north to the Antainambalana river in the south. P. d. diadema extends from the Antainambalana river in the north to the Onive river in the south populations in the southwestern part of this range (between the Mangoro and Onive rivers) are morphologically different, and may be taxonom-ically distinct from P. d. diadema (CBSG, 2002 Glander and Irwin, unpublished data). Finally, P. d. edwardsi is found from the Onive river in the north to the Manampatrana river in the south.

Preface And Acknowledgments

John Epifanio provided the allozyme gel picture in Chapter 2. Eric Delwart provided the original data used to draw a figure in Chapter 6. Michel Veuille shared information on Drosophila simulans DNA sequences used in an Interact box in Chapter 8. Peter Armbruster shared unpublished mosquito pupal mass data used in Chapter 9. John Dudley and Stephen Moose generously shared the Illinois Long-Term Selection experiment data used in Chapter 9. Robert J. Robbins kindly provided high-resolution scans from Sewall Wright's Chapter in an original copy of the Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics (see

Tumour Stroma Interaction A Novel Target in Cancer

Therefore, sensitization of tumour cell by nucleic acid enzymes to chemotherapy should be investigated. In this regard, the PKC-a ribozyme and DNA enzymes sensitized a breast cancer cell line, SKBR3, to taxol treatment (M. Leirdal and M. Sioud, unpublished results).

Patchily Distributed and Genetically Differentiated

Reduced genetic diversity as a result of genetic erosion (Lesica and Allendorf 1995), as shown for other butterflies like Parnassius apollo (Habel et al. 2009), Parnassius smintheus (Keyghobadi et al. 2005), Speyeria idalia (Keyghobadi et al. 2006), Proclossiana eunomia (Neve et al. in press), and the ground beetle Carabus auronitens (Drees et al. 2008). Obviously, the present mountainous retreats of Central Europe left sufficient space for intact metapopulations of Lycaena helle to maintain this high genetic diversity to the present day. The phenomenon of high genetic diversity despite long-term isolation was also shown for other relict organisms, which maintained their genetic variability through intact population networks within isolated areas (cf. Baali-Cherif and Besnard 2005). As the detected private alleles do not appear in further populations over the entire European distribution area (Habel et al. unpublished data), their evolution should have taken place in most cases after...

Expected Autonav Performance

Halley-like models (Figure 8) derived from the unpublished shape models developed by P. Stooke and A. Abergel (Halley Nucleus Shape Model, personal communication via M. Belton, 2000). These models have a general ellipsoidal shape with an axial ratio of 2 1 and a relatively smooth surface

Groundbased Geophysics

Rock physical properties have been measured on samples from the centrally located 610 m deep drill hole (No 5 in Fig. 2) and from outcrops. The unpublished data are available on request from the national database at the Geological Survey of Sweden. The measurements comprise density, magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetization. In addition, the Geological Survey of Sweden has a regional data set of such petrophysical measurements containing 2392 samples. For locations see Fig. 11. The data have been compiled in standard diagrams with some of the major lithologies related to the Siljan structure outlined (Fig. 12). Some results are summarized in Table 2.

Critical factors in evaluation of libraryconstruction methods

Whereas the understanding of library quality is critical for an accurate estimate of effective library size, published data on library quality is scarce, probably because it requires extensive sequencing of unselected clones, which are of no phenotypic interest. Sources of poor library quality are generally believed to be out-of-frame or out-of-alignment recombination, errors in oligonucleotide synthesis, and errors in PCR amplification (except as desired during construction of libraries by error-prone PCR). In our personal experience with site-directed diversification, library quality has been limited by the quality of commercially available synthetic oligonucleotides, whose error rates range between 0.2 and 1 per base for standard-scale oligonucleotide synthesis (with higher error rates for oligonucleotides longer than 80 base pairs), and between 0.5 and 2 per base for microscale synthesis (S. Basu, unpublished data). Mistakes in DNA replication by high-fidelity polymerases, on the...

Bibliographical notes

Reference 1 contains facsimiles and English translations of all relevant papers by Fabricius, Galileo, and Scheiner it also presents a brief account of Harriot's unpublished work. See also References 21 and 30, which contain detailed citations to many original papers on helioseismology and stellar rotation.

Weighing the Words of Others on Gold Scales

Galileo's re-kindled hope certainly was not unfounded. Young Francesco Barberini had just been made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei, and Urban VIII's first official action was to make his nephew a cardinal. Prince Cesi altered the rule about churchmen not being academicians for Francesco's sake. Other members of the Academy also stood high in the Pope's favour. One of these, Giovanni Ciampoli, was given the highly influential post of Papal Secretary and Privy Chamberlain. Suddenly Galileo had a number of contacts right inside the Church's hub of power. Obviously the Jesuits reacted to such statements. No reader could however fail to notice that between the shafts of sarcasm the sickness-wracked Galileo, almost sixty-years-old, shone with original observations, acute inferences and thought-provoking questions. It was in this book that he formulated his belief in mathematics - or rather geometry - as the language ofnature. And he knew himself that this did not only apply to the...

Discussion And Priorities For The Future

In a preliminary study (data not shown), an injection of adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) to a single giant panda male markedly increased both faecal and urinary corticoids in 0.05) in urinary corticosteroids (1) within females over the four-month breeding season (February to May), (2) in spontaneously ovulating versus gonadotrophin-treated females, or (3) among mated, non-mated, anovulatory, pregnant or pseudopregnant females. The latter findings are important because they suggest that anovulation or 'weak oestrus' in the giant panda is probably unrelated to stress.

Critique of the Binford model

All the specific patterns which Binford claims to have identified within the Combe Grenal deposits rest at present on unpublished data. Until Binford has published the analytical data on which these spatial patterns are based it will be impossible to assess exactly how strong - or weak - the patterns may be in quantitative terms, and whether any are repeated consistently in the different occupation levels. There are already reasons to think that many of the patterns are more diffuse, more variable and more questionable than his preliminary reports would imply. The main point to emphasize, however, is that even if the patterns do have some validity in broad statistical terms, it is possible to suggest a number of much simpler and more economical explanations for these distributions than the heavily sociological interpretations which he has advanced. For example, any slight disparity between the overall spatial distribution of notches and denticulates, versus side scrapers and points,...

Martin Harwit An attempt at detecting the cosmic background radiation in the early s

In 1963 the helium content of the universe was known to account for approximately one quarter of all the atomic mass in the universe. If the conversion of hydrogen into helium had all taken place in stars, then some of the energy liberated in the process should be observable in the infrared. I no longer recall why I thought the observation was feasible, but this was an easy calculation, and there were so many things like that in the air at the time. There just weren't very many astrophysicists then interested in cosmo-logical questions, and many of these thoughts simply remained unpublished, though knowledgeable people were aware of them and exchanged ideas about them over tea or coffee. These were quick ideas that were not sufficiently substantive to warrant publication. They were somehow too obvious.

Mandibular Symphysis Robusticity Breadth Height

This feature measures the general robusticity of the mandibular symph-ysis. That is, a high index means the symphysis is robust, while a lower index means it is more gracile. As suggested by Hylander (1984, 1988), Hylander and Johnson (1994), and Hylander et al. (2000), the thickness of the symphysis has important implications associated with wishboning and its impact on the symphyseal region. All data for the fossil hominins have been taken from B.A. Wood (1991), and data for the extant hominids are either unpublished data collected by DWC, unless stated otherwise. The mean index for the extant hominids (n 99) is 0.38, with one standard deviation of 0.05. A gracile symphysis is defined by an index of less than 0.33, an intermediate breadth is between 0.33 and 0.43, while a robust symphysis is defined by an index greater than 0.43. In addition to this, the minimum value for the extant hominids is 0.26, while the maximum value is 0.51.

Evolution Of Cathemerality

The ubiquity of day-night activity across mammals provides further evidence that this type of flexibility is probably ancient in origin. Day-night activity is present in many types of environment, at different trophic levels in both generalists and specialists, as well as in prototherian, metatherian, and eutherian mammals (Curtis and Rasmussen, 2006). There also appears to be a trend in mammals from nocturnality to mixed day-night activity with increasing body size and at different trophic levels, as shown, for example, for both herbivores and carnivores (Belovsky and Slade, 1986 Zielinski, unpublished data cited in Zielinski, 2000). This is of relevance given recent estimates of body mass in ancestral primates by Soligo and Martin (2006), suggesting that the last common ancestor of extant primates weighed around 1 kg and hence subsisted on fruit in combination with either insects or leaves. Soligo and Martin (2006) suggest that the cheirogaleids represent a dwarf lineage within the...

Luring the Crab to the Trap

Fish Trap The Philippines

Fishing trials were conducted to test the effectiveness of using live decoys placed in traps for the capture of C. japonica (Vazquez Archdale, unpublished results). At first, by simply inserting individual adult crabs into box traps with slit entrances this entrance type acts as a one-way valve and hinders escape (Fig. 2, top). Testing the effectiveness of individual male and female crab decoys in comparison to fish bait and non-baited traps has shown that effectiveness depended on the length of time the traps remained in the water (soaking time). Trials done by soaking the traps overnight showed that fish bait was the best luring method

Supraorbital Torus Thickness

This feature is distinct from supraorbital torus form because it measures the thickness of the torus from its midpoint (inferosuperior chord distance). This value is divided by orbital height to give an index value. The extant hominoid mean of 0.22 and one standard deviation of 0.07 gives an intermediate range of 0.15-0.29. Data for the extant and fossil Miocene homi-noids is unpublished data held by Cameron (unless stated otherwise), while all data of the fossil hominins has been calculated from the data provided in B.A. Wood (1991). It was also noted that the mean for H. sapiens was below the minimum value generated for the extant hominid (0.11). Thus, an additional character state of a very gracile torus ( 0.11) is recognized no hominids were beyond the maximum extant hominid value of 0.43.

Legionelladirected Phagosome Biogenesis

Exciting progress has been made by proteome studies and the analysis oflatex bead-containing Dictyostelium phagosomes which helped to define three maturation stages 19 . The first maturation stage is characterized by coronin and lysosomal glycoprotein (LmpB) acquisition. The second stage is characterized by the transfer of lysosomal enzymes. The third stage is characterized by quantitative retrieval of hydrolases from the phagolysosome and exocytosis of latex beads. So far, almost 200 phagosome proteins have been identified and ordered by their temporal appearance 20 . The phagosome proteins of Legionella-infected Dictyostelium cells also belong to a variety of functional categories, but specific alterations can be observed. Proteins involved in metabolism, protein biosynthesis as well as cytoskeleton and signal transduction make up the bulk of the Legionella phagosome proteome and agree well with the observed upregulation of their transcription 32 . The presence of elongation...

Invasive Scpices Conclusion

Investigating the possible application of alternative fishing gear like liftnets or tangle nets should be considered for eradicating crustacean pests. In several countries the use of this gear is considered illegal and is favored by poachers because they are operated quickly and are very effective. Crustacean fisheries employing tangle nets are found in some countries, and a good example is the spanner crab Ranina ranina fishery in Australia, where this gear has proved much more efficient than using conventional traps (Kennelly and Craig 1989). Preliminary trials using liftnets to capture swimming crabs confirmed their superiority to traps, and caught five times more crabs in one hour than dome traps in one day. Liftnets are fished much shorter times, from 30-60 minutes and consume half the amount of bait. When considering the expense of bait, lift nets caught 20 crabs per kilogram of bait, while traps caught only 2.8 (Vazquez Archdale, unpublished results). Liftnets can also be...

Mid FacialUpper Facial Breadth

This is defined by an index of bijugal bi-frontomalare temporale, using the same method described for character 2, to construct the character states. This feature is distinct from character 44, because it describes the breadth of the upper face relative to the mid-face, while the previous character measures the relative breadth of the upper face between hominid taxa. This feature is likely to be of developmental and functional interest because it relates to musculature development (e.g., temporalis and mas-seter). All data for the fossil hominins have been taken from B.A. Wood (1991) data for the extant hominids are unpublished data collected by Cameron. The mean index for the extant hominids (n 121) is 1.09, with one standard deviation of 0.07. Thus, any value less than 1.02 indicates that the upper face and lower face have a similar breadth any value between 1.02 and 1.16 indicates an intermediate condition while any value greater than 1.16 indicates that mid-facial breadth is...

Indicators of Dental Health

Loss, most of which have been lost due to excessive wear (Cuozzo and Sauther, 2004a, 2006, in press), only 6 of the sifaka skeletal specimens at the reserve exhibit tooth loss (Cuozzo and Sauther, in press Cuozzo, unpublished data). Among sifaka, most tooth loss results from dental pathology, not excessive wear (Cuozzo and Sauther, in press Cuozzo, in preparation). In addition, the degree of tooth wear in the sifaka sample, while sometimes pronounced in older individuals relative to others in the sample (including the anterior dentition Cuozzo and Sauther, in press Cuozzo, unpublished data ), is far exceeded by ring-tailed lemurs, in which many teeth are worn down to the roots, and often completely lost, a condition seen in both living individuals and skeletal specimens (e.g., Cuozzo and Sauther, 2004a, 2005, 2006, in press Sauther et al., 2002). A recent study of tooth wear in Propithecus edwardsi at Ranomafana National Park (King et al., 2005) illustrates that, although sifaka...

Nocturnal Visual Predation and the Evolution of Orbit Orientation and the Postorbital

In fact, the coevolution of these orbital parameters characterized the origin of anthropoids and the evolution of a postorbital septum is also thought to dampen ocular movements (cf., Cartmill, 1980 Ravosa, 1991b,c, unpublished Ross, 1995 Ross and Ravosa, 1993) (Table 4). Levels of orbital frontation are likewise elevated in more encephalized primates (Cartmill, 1980, 1992 Ravosa, 1991b,c, unpublished Ross, 1995 Ross and Ravosa, 1993). Contrary to a recent suggestion (Heesy, 2005), added support for this structural pattern is provided by suborder comparisons of the primate growth data. Due to greater encephalization and increased basicranial flexion (Ross and Ravosa, 1993), anthropoids typically exhibit relatively elevated levels of orbital frontation throughout ontogeny (Table 4). Furthermore, all 12 primates exhibit age-related decreases in orbital frontation (Table 4) a pattern which strongly belies the negative scaling of brain size and basicranial flexion common to the...

Distribution Of Mouse Lemur Species

There are currently seven described mouse lemur species inhabiting western Madagascar. Their distribution pattern falls into two categories species with a broad distribution range such as the grey mouse lemur (M. murinus) and species with a regional or even locally restricted distribution range (M. griseorufus, M. berthae, M. myoxinus, M. ravelobensis, M. sambiranensis, M. tavaratra) (Figure. 1a,b). The distribution range of M. murinus extends from the southern region of Tolagnaro (Martin, 1972 Hapke, 2005) over the west coast (Tattersall, 1982 Mittermeier et al., 1994 Rasoloarison et al., 2000), up to at least the river Sofia in northwestern Madagascar (Olivieri et al., 2005 Olivieri and Radespiel, unpublished results). Previous reports of sightings farther to the north in the Ankarana Reserve (Nicoll and Langrand, 1989 Mittermeier et al., 1994) have so far not been confirmed with molecular data. M. murinus occurs sympatrically with other mouse lemur species in southern (M....

Diet And Feeding Ecology

Simmen et al. (2006b) and Sauther (unpublished data) note the L. catta play a key role in seed dispersal and germination of kily. Simmen et al. (2006b) found that seed germination is more successful and occurs far more rapidly after passing through the ring-tailed lemur's digestive tract.

Dorsal Pulvinar And Related Cortical Networks

Prosimians have a suite of pulvinar subdivisions similar to anthropoids (Glendenning et al., 1975 Simmons, 1988 Weller and Kaas, 1982). There are few published data on dorsal pulvinar connections, but the studies of Raczkowski and Diamond (1980, 1981) demonstrate connections with posterior parietal and temporal association cortex. Also, tracer injections of pre-frontal, posterior parietal, and STS cortex made by Preuss and Goldman-Rakic (unpublished observations) yielded strong labeling of the dorsal pulvinar. These injections also demonstrated strong interconnections among the higherorder cortical areas (Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, 1991c).

The Nikola Tesla Story

If there is anyone more influential than Reich in the field of alternative technology, it is certainly Nikola Tesla, famed inventor and champion of alternating current. Unlike Reich, Tesla's influence extends beyond the importance of any particular invention or discovery, like Reich's orgone. Tesla's influence is closer to a cult of personality. For example, in 1959 Margaret Storm released Return of the Dove, a self-published volume printed in green ink. In this book Storm claimed that Nikola Tesla was really from the planet Venus. According to Storm, Tesla was born on a space-ship en route from Venus to earth, where he was placed in the adoptive care of Jonathan and Martha Kent, I mean Milutin and Djouka Tesla.

Bee Taxa and Categories

This table gives the authors' names for the higher taxa, and estimates of the approximate numbers of included species for genera and subgenera. Depending on the status of the systematics of the particular group, these numbers are based on revisions, estimates, or merely number of specific names. They relate to named species but are often uncertain because revisors were not certain about the status of some names or because of unpublished synonymies or other findings. Isolated descriptions of new species were commonly ignored. The numbers in parentheses after family-group names are those of the corresponding text sections. Subgeneric names are in italics. At the end of the table are the totals. Fossil taxa are excluded see Section 22. This table gives the authors' names for the higher taxa, and estimates of the approximate numbers of included species for genera and subgenera. Depending on the status of the systematics of the particular group, these numbers are based on revisions,...

Acknowledgments On Mammals

Cartmill, M., 1970, The Orbits of Arboreal Mammals A Reassessment of the Arboreal Theory of Primate Evolution, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Ritland, S., 1982, The Allometry of the Vertebrate Eye, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago.

Social Organization And Behavior Group Composition

P. edwardsi at Talatakely (Ranomafana) live in groups of three to nine individuals, with a mean of 4.61 (Wright, 1995 Pochron et al., 2004), while those at the Vatoharanana trail system live in groups of 2-8, with a mean of 4.3 (Hemingway, 1995). Groups of 3-6 individuals (mean 4.8) were observed for P. diadema at Mantadia (Powzyk, 1997), while P. diadema at Tsinjoarivo have been observed in groups of 4-7 (mean 4.9 Irwin, 2006, unpublished data). P. tattersalli have slightly larger group sizes (3-10 Meyers, 1993), similar to those of western sifakas (Richard, 1978). Such intermediate group sizes open the door for several group types. Assuming that stable groups have at least one breeding male and female, four distinct types are possible polygynous, polyandrous, polygynan-drous, and monogamous pairs. Such variability is less likely in larger groups (usually polygynandrous) or smaller groups (usually monogamous). Behavioral studies at other sites have not lasted long enough to provide...

Microscopic versus Biochemical Assays

Rhodamine Assay Facs

Our lab has recently established a fluorescence microscopy-based in vitro assay for fusion of lysosomes with bacteria-containing phagosomes (Becken and Haas, unpublished, similar to an assay described by Brandhorst et al. 13 for homotypic early endosome fusion. In our assay, bacteria are covalently surface-labeled with a green fluorescent dye before phagocytosis and lysosomes are preloaded with a red fluorophor. After vesicle fusion both dyes are present in one compartment. This can be visualized as a spatial overlap of both signals using conventional fluorescence microscopy (Figure 6.1e). Using this method there is little danger of false-positive signals caused by fluorescent dye leaking from ruptured lysosomes. If that did happen, it would be strongly diluted in the reaction buffer and would not be able to

The Diseases By Organ System

Fossilized Organs

Digestive disorders represent by far the most prevalent and chronic form of disease in captive giant pandas (Bush et al, 1985 Goltenboth, 1985a,b Villares et al., 1985 Pan et al., 1991 Gual-Sil et al., 2000 F. Ollivet, unpublished data, pathology report, Paris Zoo). Gastrointestinal disease is the leading reported cause of death in captive pandas and also maybe so in free-ranging counterparts (Qiu & Mainka, 1993). Cubs often develop bouts of diarrhoea within the first month of life, particularly if hand reared on artificial milk replacer (I. K. Loeffler, unpublished observations). Cubs raised on milk replacer and recent weanlings often develop diarrhoea that can become a chronic condition. Episodes of abnormal stool, abdominal pain, passage of mucous faeces, vomiting and inappetance occur frequently, if not chronically, throughout the lives of many giant pandas ex situ. An oropharyngeal fistula and sublingual abscess were diagnosed in a 28-year-old male giant panda (SB 121) at the...

Buffons epochs of nature

Buffon used an ironworks on his estate at Montbard near Dijon to heat iron spheres of different sizes. During these experiments, he timed their cooling and from this data calculated how long it would take an Earth-sized iron sphere to cool. His published results claimed that the Earth must be at least 75,000 years old, but his unpublished notes show that he thought the figure to be some 40 times longer that is, around 3 million years. His reticence may show that he was not entirely immune to criticism and was worried that such an extreme age might leave him open to ridicule by his contemporaries, who generally believed in an age of not much more than 'six or eight thousand years', derived from various versions of the biblical chronology.

Aptamer Core Structures and Serum Stability

Unmodified aptamer 2-16 RNA was characterized with a half-life of 5 s in human serum. The co-transcriptional incorporation of2 -fluoro- and or 2 -amino-substituted pyrimidine nucleotides increased the stability of the RNA up to a half-life of several days (unpublished data). A cell-binding analysis demonstrated, that 2 -amino-modifications led to a complete loss of the ap-tamer parasite interaction, while 2 -fluoro-substitutions retained the binding capacity of the modified RNA. This observation is consistent with the above-described assumption that 2 -fluoro-substitutions are the preferred candidates for maintaining the structural integrity and thus function of modified ap-tamers. The binding affinity of 2 -fluoro-modified 2-16 RNA to parasite cells was marginally enhanced (Kd of 70 nM versus 60 nM for unmodified 2-16 RNA), suggesting a contribution of the 2 -F group in the interaction. In addition, 2 -F-modified 2-16 RNA bound to the flagellar pocket indistinguishable from...

Overview Of The Tree

Overview The Tree

Reproductive cells (Cavalier-Smith 1998, 2002). These flagella also have unique similarities in their anchorage systems (Patterson 1999). However, none of these characters is universally present in all animals and fungi or uniquely absent in all other eukaryotes (Steenkamp and Baldauf 2004). The only universal synapomor-phy for animals and fungi is a 9-17 amino acid insertion in protein synthesis elongation factor 1A (EF1A Baldauf and Palmer 1993 Steenkamp et al. 2006), although some choanoflagellates appear to have lost this gene and the insertion may have evolved a second time independently (Atkinson and Baldauf unpublished Keeling and Inagaki 2005).

Mandibular Corpus Robusticity Breadth Height

This character measures the robusticity of the corpus at M2. This feature is of functional and developmental interests because it relates to bone deposition associated with tensile and compressive stress during the masticatory cycle (see Hylander, 1984, 1988 Hylander & Johnson, 1994 Hylander et al., 2000 B. Brown, 1997). All data for the hominins has been taken from B.A. Wood (1991), while all extant hominid data is from DWC (unpublished). Most of the values for the Miocene hominids have been taken from Begun (1994b). The mean hominid index for this character is 0.56 (n 103), with one standard deviation equal to 0.08. Thus, the

Preface to the First Edition

I also have been lucky to have had conversations or correspondence with many individuals who gave me useful information, their unpublished works, letters, insights, and important references. Among them, I am grateful to Bill Atchley, David Wake, Bj rn Kurten, Lars Werdelin, Steve Orzack, John Maynard Smith, Brian Charlesworth, Michael Bell, Pete Bretsky, Gabriel Dover, Steve Farris, Steve Stanley, Doug Futuyma, Walter Eanes, Curt Teichert, George Oster, Richard Reyment, J rgen Sch bel, Max Hecht, Russell Lande, Art Boucot, Ledyard Stebbins, Vjaldar Jaanusson, Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson, Jack Sepkoski, and Urj Haila.

Results And Discussion

Although giant panda males are reproductively mature at five to six years of age (Schaller et al., 1985), some captive-held males do not begin breeding until much later. For example, one male (SB number 342) at the Chengdu Research Base did not copulate until 14 years of age (Snyder, unpublished data) despite being given access to at least one oestrous female each year from the time he was four to seven years of age. He was aggressive during some of these early introductions, and, because he mildly injured two females, was not given the opportunity to breed again until age 14, when he was suddenly successful. Another male (SB 287) at Chengdu Zoo was placed with prime age females at seven and eight years of age but no breeding occurred. When given the opportunity again at age 13, he mated successfully. Both SB 342 and 287 were captured from the wild at less than one year old and, thus, may have had a few more months of mother-rearing than typical captive-born counterparts. In...

Positive selection protein structure and coevolution

System was published (Rain et al. 2001). From mapping one data set on to the other, two pathways with multiple positively selected hits were identified (H. Ardawatia and D. A. Liberles, unpublished observations). While the significance of this is still under investigation, this type of approach can increasingly link sequence evolution in the context of phylogeny with the growing field of systems biology.

Specializations Of Corticotectal Organization

As noted in an earlier section, the superior colliculus influences activity of cerebral cortex by means of its projections to several thalamic nuclei that innervate the cortex. The cortex, in turn, sends projections back to the col-liculus. In most mammals that have been studied, the densest projections to the colliculus arise from visual cortex and other sensory areas of the posterior cerebrum projections from frontal cortex are present, but are relatively scant (e.g., opossums Martinich et al., 2000 insectivores Kunzle, 1995 cats Tortelly et al., 1980 Harting et al., 1992 rabbits Buchanan et al., 1994 rats Beckstead, 1979 Leichnetz and Gonzalo-Ruiz, 1987 Reep et al., 1987 tree shrews Casseday et al., 1979). In primates, by contrast, dense corticotectal projections originate from frontal cortex and from higher-order parietal and temporal areas (Figure 8), as well as from visual areas (Fries, 1984). In Old World and New World monkeys, frontotectal projections arise mainly from...

Conservation Implications

As already noted, Malagasy lemurs may be especially susceptible to pathogens introduced through recent human occupation. Of importance are several pathogens that could play an important role in lemur disease ecology when associated with increased human presence. The first, Toxoplasmosis gondii, is a protozoanl infection that is carried by domestic cats. When the parasite enters an aberrant host, it often causes significant illness and death. T. gondii was first documented in captive L. catta in 1962 and is believed to have been brought to Madagascar by domesticated cats (Sureau et al., 1962). Of these domesticated cats, many are now feral (locally known as Ampaha), and some reside in lemur habitats. T.gondii infection is highly pathogenic in some lemur species (e.g., it is usually fatal for captive ring-tailed lemurs, Dubey et al., 1985), but may be less so for other lemur species (e.g., ruffed lemurs, Junge, 1999). Seropositive titers have been detected for both wild black lemurs...

Material And Methods

Information on material and methods, study site, precipitation, subject capture, observations, feeding plants, and characterization of forest have been given in Thalmann (2001). Here, it is shortly summarized and complemented with unpublished information on climate and data on forest phenology.


Figure 9.1 Examples of continuous quantitative trait distributions. The top panels show the distributions of body length and weight in a sample of 3-year-old striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The bottom panels are pupal mass distributions for mosquitoes raised in laboratory or field conditions. Each panel gives the sample size (n), mean, variance, and coefficient of variation (CV) that quantify the phenotypic distribution. Striped bass data are from L. Pieper (unpublished results). Mosquito pupal mass data from Armbruster and Conn (2006) and P. Armbruster (unpublished results).


Phagosomes do not only consist of proteins. Membrane materials comprise just as much lipids as proteins, but because of the lack of suitable detection methods, lipids have been neglected for many years. Recently, the group of Bernd Helms (Utrecht University), in cooperation with the group of Gareth Griffiths (University of Oslo, Norway), have identified hundreds oflipid species in phagosomes and have investigated changes in phagosome lipid composition over time (unpublished, cited after 36 ).

Activity Pattern

Even though captive individuals of H. g. griseus are known to exhibit nighttime activities (Pollock, 1986 Santini-Palka, 1994), field investigations carried out during daylight hours and nocturnal surveys all suggest that the animals are diurnal (Grassi, 2001 Overdorff et al., 1997 Pollock, 1986 Tan, 2000 Wright, 1986). Except in the degraded forest of Maroantsetra, H. g. griseus individuals have been observed to travel after dusk (16 00-21 00) (Petter et al., 1977). In Talatakely, RNP, a recent study involving 24-hour observations lends further support that the animals are strictly diurnal in the southeast (C. Tan, unpublished data). Daytime activity budget shows that H. g. griseus spends about 41 resting, 48 feeding, and 9 traveling (Figure 1) (Tan, 2000). In Talatakely, RNP, H. aureus is diurnal as indicated by 24-hour observations (C. Tan, unpublished data). The activity pattern shows a distinct midday rest period between 09 00 and 13 00. H. aureus spends approximately 54 of the...

Positional Behavior

Profiles have been found in E. albocollaris at Vevembe (Johnson, unpublished data). This partial reliance on vertical postures and leaping is reflected in brown lemur anatomy. Fleagle and Anapol (1992) found ischial morphology in E. fulvus was consistent with adaptations for pronograde quadrupedalism similar to Varecia, as well as for true clinging and leaping, as in the indriids. Like most eastern lemurs, E. f. rufus at Ranomafana typically used middle levels of the canopy, ascending to heights above 15 m only 12-28 of the time, depending on the season (Dagosto, 1995). Locomotion can also vary seasonally quadrupedalism in E. f. rufus increased and leaping decreased significantly during the wet season, associated with greater overall travel and use of small feeding trees with small gaps between canopies (Dagosto, 1995).

Social Organization

The majority of H. g. griseus groups contain 2 to 7 individuals, although some may have as many as 11 individuals (Grassi, 2001 Overdorff et al., 1997 Petter et al., 1977 Pollock, 1986 Tan, 1999, 2000 Wright, 1986). The social organization is variable groups may consist of a breeding pair or a breeding male with two breeding females (Pollock, 1986 Tan, 1999, 2000). Both sexes are known to disperse from natal groups (Grassi, 2001 Tan, 2000). Preliminary data suggest that females are socially dominant over males (C. Tan, unpublished data). H. aureus generally lives in small family groups (Meier et al., 1987 Tan, 1999, 2000 Wright and Randriamanantena, 1989). In Talatakely, RNP, 80 of H. aureus groups contain a breeding pair however, there can be two breeding females and up to 8 individuals in the group. Long-term demographic data collected between 1996 and 2006 show that both sexes migrate. There is no clear dominance hierarchy between the sexes (C. Tan, unpublished data). group at one...

Anhimidae Screamers

Ericson (1997), Olson (1999b), and Feduccia (1999) mentioned unpublished remains of early Eocene anhimid-like birds from the Willwood Formation (Wyoming) which are under study by Peter Houde. A similar species also occurred in the early Eocene London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (see Table 4.1 in Feduccia 1999 own observation).

Reddy et al

Additionally, Klaus Fuhrmann has in a series of papers (Fuhrmann 1998 2004) and further, unpublished work investigated a sample containing all mid-F to early-K dwarf stars within 25 pc and with MV 6 and location north of declination S 15 . Since such a sample is mainly made up of thin-disk stars, he added stars at larger distances that are assumed representative of the thick disk and halo. However, the basic criteria used to assign a star to either thin or thick disk have evolved between the papers. In the first paper the chemical signatures (i.e. Mg abundances) were the major criteria, whereas in the second paper age is envisioned as the criterion that will distinguish a star as belonging to the thin or the thick disk. It also turns out that these assignments do agree with kinematic classifications based on e.g. VLSR and total velocity.


In Talatakely, RNP, H. aureus groups have home ranges averaging about 30 ha (Tan, 1999, 2000). Like H. g. griseus, they are also extremely territorial. In fact, they are the only Hapalemur species that produce complex, sex-specific vocal duets as a form of territorial defense against conspecifics. H. aureus individuals are unperturbed around H. g. griseus but have been observed to chase H. simus (C. Tan, unpublished data).

Molar Premolar Size

This feature is defined using an index of molar area (M1-M3) divided by premolar area (P3-P4). The relationship between premolar and molar size is likely to be associated with masticatory demands. All data for the fossil hominins has been taken from B.A. Wood (1991) data for the extant hominids are unpublished data collected by DWC. The mean index for the extant hominids (n 122) is 2.10, with one standard deviation of 0.19. Thus, the intermediate condition is between 1.91 and 2.29. The minimum extant hominid value is 1.64, and the maximum value is 2.62 (see Cameron, 1998).

Cranial Base Breadth

This character is an index of bi-porion divided by orbital height (chords). The method used for defining the three character states used here is described earlier (see character 2). The overall breadth of the cranial base is significant in terms of head support and will have an impact on the orientation of numerous other basicranial morphologies (e.g., tympanic plate and the petrous bone). All data for the fossil hominins has been taken from B.A. Wood (1991) data for the extant hominids is unpublished and collected by Cameron. The index for P walkeri (KNM-WT 17000) was generated from a cast. The mean index for the extant hominids (n 122) is 3.27, with one standard deviation 0.27. Thus, a narrow cranial base is defined by an index of less than 3.00, intermediate is between 3.00 and 3.54, and a broad cranial base is defined by an index greater than 3.54.


In comparison with the other subspecies, the diet of H. g. griseus is the best known and includes a diverse array of plants. In Analamazoatra Special Reserve (ASR), Wright (1986) reported that bamboo (Bambusa sp.) constitutes 90 of the animals' diet during the austral winter months. Like Pollock (1986), Wright also found H. g. griseus eating leafy parts of other plants and some fruit. Long-term studies conducted in RNP confirmed that bamboo is the mainstay of H. g. griseus (Grassi, 2001 Overdorff et al., 1997 Tan, 1999, 2000). In particular, at Talatakely, approximately 80 of the lemur's annual diet is comprised of bamboo (Cathariostachys madagascariensis, Cephalostachyum cf. perrieri, Cephalostachyum sp., Nastus elongatus, and Nastus sp.) parts ingested include the base of young leaves, immature pseudopetioles, branch shoots (i.e., emerged from the nodes), and ground shoots. The animals also consume a variety of nonbamboo foliage, fruit, and flowers (Tan, 1999, 2000). In fact,...

Upper Facial Breadth

The method used for defining the indices and ranges of variability and resulting character states are described earlier (see character 2). The overall breadth of the upper face is important because it gives a relative statement concerning the lateral expansion of the upper face. All data for the fossil hominins have been taken from B.A. Wood (1991) data for the Miocene and extant hominids are unpublished data collected by Cameron, though partly provided in Cameron (1997a, 1997b, 1998). The index is bi-frontomalare temporale orbital height. The extant hominid mean is 2.94 (n 122), with one standard deviation of 0.34. Thus, the intermediate condition is between 2.60 and 3.28, while broad is larger than 3.28, and narrow is less than 2.60. It was also noted that Graecopithecus, with an index of 4.44, lies well beyond the extant hominid maximum value of 3.81, so it is allocated to an additional character state, extremely broad (see next paragraph).

Huttons Boswells

Though Hutton's personal affairs were in disarray, the same could not be said of his intellectual pursuits. By 1797, he had published two of three planned volumes of the Theory of the Earth. The unpublished third volume would have been welcomed, for the draft manuscript contained passages about his discoveries at Glen Tilt, Arran, and Siccar Point. But it was hardly necessary. The doctor had completed all the needed field-work, and Clerk, Playfair, and Hall were his witnesses. He had published his theory three times the Abstract in 1785, the long paper in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1788, and the two volumes of Theory of the Earth in 1795. And he had also published a short piece on granite in 1790. He no doubt died feeling that his theory and legacy were secure.


Acknowledgments We thank the organisers of the Stony Brook Human Evolution Symposium and Workshop for inviting us to contribute a review article to this volume. We thank the Government of Kenya and the Kenya National Museums for granting us permission to work on valuable fossil material in their care. We thank Emma Mbua, Meave Leakey, Dan Lieberman, Fred Spoor, and Louise Humphrey for their help with this project and we thank Fred Grine for patiently awaiting the manuscript. In particular we are grateful to Helen Liversidge for allowing us to cite unpublished data in this review and for many helpful discussions. We thank Alan Walker and Richard Leakey and Harvard University Press for permission to reproduce Fig. 10.2 in this review from the Nariokotome monograph (1993).


It is necessary to investigate the role of NK cells in the innate immunity against HIV infection. It is now clear that there are at least three kinds of immune mechanisms involved in the control of viral infections including that of HIV-1 A) intrinsic innate immunity mediated by a group of major defenses against infection by retroviruses, Fv1 and TRIM5 inhibitors, proteins that target incoming retroviral capsids and the APOBEC3 class of cytidine deaminases that hypermutate and destabilize retroviral genomes. These are probably involved in the prevention of HIV-1 into cells and constitute the first level of protection from infection by specific cells, such as dendritic cells, including plasmocytoid dendritic cells. Of course many proteins such as cytokines, IL12, chemokines, and chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are important. B) Genetic markers of immune effectors that are important in the outcome of HIV-1 infection Natural killer, NK, receptors of two kinds, Ig-like such as KIRs and...

Union in the s

I outline here the development of the situation at this period in the Soviet Union. It so happened that I played a part at this stage of the story. This description relies on my recollections, published and unpublished material of my colleagues, and special recent discussions with participants of the events. I have used also some material from the books Zel'dovich and Novikov (1983) and Novikov (1990), and from the paper Novikov (2001). It was clear that this discovery means the strict proof of the hot universe. This discovery was widely discussed among Soviet physicists and astronomers. Zel'dovich abandoned his hypothesis of the cold universe and became an ardent proponent of the theory of the hot universe. In his letter to Professor Dicke he wrote on September 15, 1965 (unpublished and kindly provided to me by J. Peebles) I am not more so cock-sure in my cold universe hypothesis It was based on the assumption that the initial helium content is much smaller than 35 by weight. Now I...

In Vivo Studies

Observations in our lab suggest that the initial uniform coat of phagosomal F-actin breaks symmetry and can be polarized to form a dynamic actin comet. This structure generates a propulsive force and moves the phagosome through the macrophage (Liebl and Griffiths, unpublished results). Such comets have been earlier described and characterized in detail on the surface of cytoplasmic pathogens (that have escaped from the phagosomal membrane), such as Listeria, Shigella or Rickettsia 28 . Comet motility under the control of phosphatidylinositol4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and N-WASP has also been shown for late endosomes 29, 30 and for early endosomes 29, 31-33 .

The Dust Coma

A number of observations of Tempel 1 exist as unpublished observations and as individual astronomical circulars. The sum of these scattered observations has led to phenomenological claims of variable dust and gas production rates pre- and post-perihelion. To further investigate this issue, we adopted instead the assumption that the comet's temporal behavior is the same from one apparition to another and assembled a long-term lightcurve covering a two-year period around perihelion for the best observed species, dust. For this lightcurve, we combined several data sets to provide good temporal coverage of the perihelion portion of the comet's orbit. These data include the 1983 InfraRed Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) measurements (re-analyzed as discussed below), the 1983 optical photometry of Cochran et al.

Gut Regulators

I.e., before institution of the e t2 autoamplification circuit. Later differentiation of intestine cells involves other transcriptional regulators, some endoderm-specific, some not (for Nhr28, Miyabayashi et al., 1999 for Pha4, Kalb et al., 1998 for zSknl, i.e., zygotically expressed Sknl, which is also required for normal gut development, Bowerman et al., 1992 for others listed, J.M. Rothman, unpublished data). The dashed arrows from the e t2 gene to the box containing the names of downstream transcriptional regulatory genes expressed in gut, indicates that for some genes such as pha4 there is evidence for direct control by e t2 (Kalb et al., 1998), while for others it is not known whether control is direct or indirect.


Et al. 2008), although Sakurai et al. (2008) mentioned unpublished specimens that possibly date from the late Eocene. Two species, Copepteryx hexeris and C. titan, were named by Olson and Hasegawa (1996). The former is known from partial skeletons, whereas of the latter only a femur was described, whose size suggests that C. titan is the largest diving bird as yet scientifically named (Olson 1985). An even larger species of the Plotopteridae, however, awaits its formal publication (Sakurai et al. 2008). Sakurai et al. (2008) described a fairly complete post-cranial skeleton of a large plotopterid from the late Oligocene of Hokkaido as Hokkaidornis abashiriensis. This species was about the size of C. hexeris, from which it differed in several osteological features, including the shape of the cora-coid and humerus.

Literature cited

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 24 83-99. Bossy, K. V. H. 1976. Morphology, paleoecology, and evolutionary relationships of the Pennsylvanian urocordylid nectrideans (subclass Lepospondyli, class Amphibia), pp. 370, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Fracasso, M. A. 1983. Cranial osteology, functional morphology, systematics and paleoenvironment of Limnoscelis paludis Williston. pp. 624 Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Fracasso, M. A. 1987. Braincase of Limnoscelis paludis Williston. Postilla, 201 122.

South America

Recent fieldwork in Chubut Province, Argentina, has begun to elucidate Late Cretaceous and early Paleocene palynofloras and megafloras, but this work is largely unpublished and stratigraphic resolution is currently at the stage level. In late 2006, fieldwork by one of us (KRJ) in concert with Museo Paleontologico

Historical Matters

Jan Muller Palynologist

Who pioneered almost everything in micropaleontology, certainly also saw them, and described what we later were to discover are acritarchs and dinoflagellate cysts in the 1830s. By 1867, Schenck was illustrating with good line drawings the in situ fossil spores he removed from fossil fern compressions. Reinsch in 1884 published the first photomicrograph of a fossil spore. It was of Carboniferous age, and the genus to which it belonged was long afterwards named, in his honor, Reinschospora, by Schopf et al. (1944). Bennie and Kidston published in 1886 descriptions of megaspores from the Carboniferous of Scotland. Actually, that is about where the paleopalynological matter ended for many decades, with somewhat peripheral exceptions, such as studies in the early 1900s by Thiessen of spores seen in Pennsylvanian coal thin-sections, and unpublished studies by Wodehouse of about the same time of pollen and spores in thin-sections of the Paleogene Green River Oil Shales.


Estimating proplastid numbers is difficult and to date no studies have definitively counted proplastid populations in meristem cells. However, various studies of shoot meristem cells estimate that they contain 10-20 proplastids per cell (Cran and Possingham 1972 Lyndon and Robertson 1976 Pyke and Leech 1992). Using modern fluorescent protein technology, imaging of proplastids in meristems and during cytokinesis should be feasible, although proplastid dynamics during meris-tematic cell divisions have yet to be studied in detail. Proplastids with fluorescent marker proteins on board, such as GFP, can be imaged in root meristems (Kohler and Hanson 2000) and those in shoot apical meristems can be observed also (Trynka and Pyke, unpublished), although experiments to determine population

Burmese Pythons

Approaches for developing an integrated pest management program can be applied. For example on small scales, multi-capture traps are being designed and research is being conducted on potential attractants within multiple agencies. Similarly, tests also have been initiated into the toxicity to Burmese pythons of acetaminophen, again with promising results (R. Mauldin and P. Savarie, National Wildlife Research Center unpublished data). In Florida, bait placement would need to be specific to Burmese pythons to avoid harming nontarget species. The unique combination of the python's size, dietary potential, and movement ability could be used to make bait delivery specific to the pythons.

Subnasal Length

This is a chord distance from nasospinale to prosthion, so it is not a measure of subnasal prognathism. Subnasal prognathism is measured in character 49. Subnasal length is defined as an index against orbital height. The mean extant hominid value for this index is 0.72, with 1 standard deviation of 0.13. Thus, an intermediate range is defined by values falling between 0.59 and 0.85. Data for fossil hominins has been taken from B.A. Wood (1991), while all other values have been constructed from unpublished data collective by DWC, unless otherwise specified.

Nile Monitor Lizards

Many exotic arrivals to Florida do not appear in the public conscientiousness. For example, the mainstream public is typically unaware that the number of non-native lizard species breeding in Florida now exceeds the number of native species, with over three times as many exotic species as native in south Florida (Hardin 2007), and many of the exotic lizard species can eat various life stages of other lizards (Meshaka et al. 2004). Nonetheless, problems with several large lizard species recently have received public media attention, a factor sometimes serving to catalyze action. Notable among these are problems from a very large (up to 2.3 m), visible lizard, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), which over the last 15+ years has become firmly established in the Cape Coral area (Enge et al. 2004), and also now appears established in the Homestead area (USDA Wildlife Services unpublished data). Nile monitors have been commonly sold in the U.S. pet trade (Bayless 1991 Faust 2001),...

Eye Shape Measures

The majority of the eye shape data were derived from Ritland (1982). Data from nonadult individuals were excluded. The primate eye shape data were derived in part from Ritland (1982), as well as from unpublished observations made by C. F. Ross. Additional data on bats and birds were collected by M. I. Hall (Hall, 2005). The orbit shape data were collected from different specimens than the eye shape data.

Temporal Fossa Size

This character is defined using the same process as outlined earlier for supraorbital torus thickness (character 2). The index used here is temporal fossa size (area) divided by orbital size (area). An intermediate range is defined by 0.85-1.73 (mean of the four extant hominid species of 1.29 n 96 and standard deviation of 0.44). A large fossa is defined by an index greater than 1.73, and a small fossa is defined by an index less than 0.85. All data of extant specimens is taken from originals (unpublished data from DWC), while all data from fossil hominins has been taken from casts housed at the School of Archaeology and Anthropology, the Australian National University.

Palate Breadth

Palate breadth is defined by an index of external palate breadth at M2 divided by orbital height. The method used for defining the three character states used here is described earlier (see character 2). All data for the fossil hominins have been taken from B.A. Wood (1991), and data for the extant and Miocene hominids are unpublished data collected by Cameron. The mean index for the extant hominids (n 124) is 1.66, with one standard deviation equal to 0.13. Thus, a narrow palate is defined by an index of less 1.53, intermediate breadth is between 1.53 and 1.79, while a broad palate is defined by an index greater than 1.79.

Info About Pandas

Blutverlust Postpartal

Estimated adequate nutrient concentrations of diets offered to captive animals are based on species' natural diets, gastrointestinal morphology and established nutrient requirements of similar species h Nutrient intake calculated based on actual annual food consumption of three adult giant pandas and chemical analysis of those foods intake of bamboo species based on equal distribution of actual bamboo intake over five commonly offered species intake of bamboo components (leaf, branch, culm) based on prediction equations of the relationship between total bamboo fresh mass and bamboo component diy mass (Edwards et al., unpublished data) nd, nutrient concentrations not determined by chemical analysis c Recommended nutrient allowances (4.0 kcal ME g-1) to support maintenance in adult dogs (NRC, 2004) d Minimum nutrient profiles for dog food (3.5 kcal ME g-1) to support maintenance in adult dogs (AAFCO, 2004) e Due to poor bioavailability, iron from carbonate or oxide sources that are...

War and Heresy

But Marco de Dominis' enemies had most decidedly not forgiven him. He was arrested, his effects examined, and a charge was then brought against him concerning heretical things he had written about marriage in an unpublished manuscript. During his examination he admitted that he drew a distinction between two classes of religious dogma. Those which concerned faith directly were sacrosanct. But others, for instance a number of resolutions adopted at Trent, could be discussed. This was precisely the same distinction that Galileo had drawn for interpreting cosmological phenomena.

Target Tunguska

Of the late Paolo Farinella (1953-2000). Using data from detailed analysis of all the available scientific literature, including unpublished eye-witness accounts that have never been translated from the Russian, and the survey of directions of more than 60,000 flattened trees, the Italian scientists plotted a series of possible orbits for the object. Of the 886 valid orbits that they calculated, 83 per cent of them were asteroid orbits, with only 17 per cent being orbits that are associated with comets.

Y Chromosome Introns

Five primer sets were chosen from Y chromosome introns which amplified in the common shrew, Sorex araneus (Hellborg and Ellegren 2003). The introns chosen were DBY1, DBY3, DBY7, UTY11, and ZFY4 generating products totaling approximately 3.2 kbp. Two other introns (DBY8, DBY14), which amplified in S. araneus (Hellborg and Ellegren 2003) were not chosen due to a lack of polymorphism in several races of the common shrew (G. Yannic, unpublished data). Amplification of the Y chromosome introns was based on the protocol used by Hellborg and Ellegren (2003). Briefly, PCR reactions consisted of 3 ml DNA (60-300 ng ml), 5.0 ml 10 x Buffer (Invitrogen), 2.5 ml of MgCl2 (2.5 mM Invitrogen), 1.0 ml dNTPs (0.2 mM Invitrogen), 1.0 ml (0.25 mM Sigma Aldrich) of forward and reverse primer for each locus and 0.3 ml of Platinum Taq Polymerase (5 U ml Invitrogen) to make up a 50 ml reaction.

Neonatal Pathology

Neonatal bacterial infections were also the leading cause of death in a study of 17 cubs less than 30 days of age in Chinese giant panda breeding facilities (B. Rideout, unpublished data). The umbilicus appeared to be the primary portal of bacterial entry regardless of whether the cub was mother- or hand-reared. Accidental maternal trauma was the second most common cause of death in this survey, but some traumatised neonates also had evidence of pre-existing bacterial infections.

Radioactive Tunguska

Zolotov was as enigmatic as the Tunguska event itself. In a 1978 special programme to celebrate the 70 th anniversary of the event, Moscow Radio described him as 'another noted investigator'. However, in its 70th-anniversary report on Tunguska, the journal Nature saw him in a different light 'His name turns up unfailingly in any discussion of the problem, and his theories, however bizarre to the scientific establishment, do at least get published . his own academic background seems obscure, and according to one physicist who worked for many years on the Tunguska site, Zolotov was originally simply an oil technologist, co-opted on to an expedition for his knowledge of the local terrain ' In the scientific literature of the time he is referred to as a 'prominent geophysicist'. Ten years later, in 1988, by the time he had led twelve Tunguska expeditions, Nature agreed that Zolotov had 'gradually emerged as an authority in his own right'.


If acoels are early-branching bilaterians, they should bear a reduced subset of the 21 miRNAs conserved across protostomes and deu-terostomes. Consistently, only six miRNAs were found in the acoel Childia sp. (Sempere et al. 2006). Additional species of Platyhelminthes (including parasitic species) have most protostome-specific miRNAs as well as those shared by protostomes and deuterostomes (L. F. Sempere, P. Martinez, J. Baguna and K. J. Peterson, unpublished data). Instead, a second acoel examined, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, has the same six miRNAs as Childia sp. Again, these data strongly support the idea that acoels are early-branching bilaterians and not members of the Platyhelminthes.

Thermal Metamorphism

Geochronological evidence indicates that an early crustal component of the granitoids of the core of the Vredefort Dome was formed around 3.4 Ga ago (our group, unpublished SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data Lana 2004). Major granitoid formation and high-grade (amphibolite or - in the innermost zone of the core - granulite facies) metamorphism occurred then

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