Contents

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Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiii

List of figures xv

List of tables xxi

List of abbreviations and acronyms xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 The giant outer planets 1

1.2 Observed atmospheres of the giant planets 4

1.2.1 Jupiter 5

1.2.2 Saturn 8

1.2.4 Neptune 12

1.3 Satellites of the outer planets 14

1.4 Exploration of the outer planets 14

1.5 Organization of the book 16

1.6 Bibliography 16

2 Formation of the giant planets 19

2.1 Formation of the universe and primordial constituents 19

2.2 Formation of the stars and evolution of the interstellar medium 20

2.3 Formation of the proto-solar nebula 22

2.3.1 Collapse of the interstellar cloud 22

2.3.2 Formation and evolution of circumstellar disks 24

2.4 Formation of the Jovian planets and comets 29

2.4.1 Core accretion model 30

2.4.2 Gravitational instability model 34

2.4.3 Migration 35

2.5 Formation of Jovian satellites 36

2.6 Bulk composition of the outer planets and isotope ratios 37

2.6.1 Constraints on formation: bulk composition X/H 37

2.6.2 Constraints on formation: D/H ratio 43

2.6.3 Constraints on formation: nitrogen 15N/14N ratio 46

2.6.4 Constraints on formation: carbon 12C/13C ratio 47

2.7 Interiors of the giant planets 47

2.7.1 Gravitational data 48

2.7.2 Magnetic field data 51

2.7.3 Internal structure of Jupiter and Saturn 51

2.7.4 Internal structure of Uranus and Neptune 54

2.8 Bibliography 56

3 Evolution processes in outer-planet atmospheres 59

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Thermal escape 59

3.2.1 Jeans' formula 59

3.2.2 Diffusion and limiting flux 61

3.2.3 Hydrodynamic escape 63

3.3 Impacts with comets and planetesimals 64

3.4 Internal differentiation processes 65

3.4.1 Effective radiating temperature of planets 65

3.5 Evolution of the giant planet atmospheres 67

3.5.1 Jupiter 67

3.5.2 Saturn 69

3.5.3 Uranus and Neptune 69

3.6 Bibliography 71

4 Vertical structure of temperature, composition, and clouds 73

4.1 Pressure and temperature profiles 73

4.1.1 Pressure 73

4.1.2 Temperature 74

4.1.3 Secondary effects on temperature/pressure profiles 79

4.1.4 Temperature/pressure profiles of the outer planets 82

4.2 Vertical mixing-eddy mixing coefficients 83

4.3 Composition profiles: general considerations 87

4.3.1 Disequilibrium species 87

4.3.2 Photolysis 89

4.3.3 Condensation 95

4.3.4 Extraplanetary sources 97

4.4 Composition and cloud profiles of the giant planets 98

4.4.1 Jupiter 98

4.4.2 Saturn 112

4.4.3 Uranus 121

4.4.4 Neptune 128

4.5 Bibliography 139

5 Dynamical processes 141

5.1 Introduction 141

5.2 Mean circulation of the giant planet atmospheres 141

5.2.1 Equations of motion 143

5.2.2 Mean zonal motions in the giant planet atmospheres . . 150

5.3 Eddy motion in the giant planet atmospheres 156

5.3.1 Turbulence in the giant planet atmospheres 157

5.3.2 Waves in the giant planet atmospheres 161

5.3.3 Vortices in the giant planet atmospheres 165

5.4 Mean and eddy circulation of the giant planet atmospheres ... 168

5.4.1 Tropospheric circulation and jets 168

5.4.2 Stratospheric and upper-tropospheric circulation 176

5.5 Meteorology of Jupiter 177

5.5.1 General circulation and zonal structure 177

5.5.2 Storms and vortices 180

5.5.3 Waves 185

5.6 Meteorology of Saturn 190

5.6.1 General circulation and zonal structure 190

5.6.2 Storms and vortices 196

5.6.3 Waves 198

5.7 Meteorology of Uranus 203

5.7.1 General circulation and zonal structure 203

5.7.2 Storms and vortices 206

5.7.3 Waves 206

5.8 Meteorology of Neptune 207

5.8.1 General circulation and zonal structure 207

5.8.2 Storms and vortices 209

5.8.3 Waves 212

5.9 Bibliography 213

6 Radiative transfer processes in outer-planetary atmospheres 215

6.1 Introduction 215

6.2 Interaction between electromagnetic radiation and particles 216

6.2.1 Fermi's golden rule 216

6.2.2 Electric and magnetic moments 217

6.3 Molecular spectroscopy: vibrational-rotational transitions 218

6.3.1 Molecular vibrational energy levels 218

6.3.2 Molecular rotational energy levels 219

6.3.3 Rotational transitions 221

6.3.4 Vibration-rotation bands 222

6.3.5 Inversion bands and inversion doubling 226

6.3.6 Diatomic homonuclear molecules 226

6.3.7 Line broadening 227

6.3.8 Giant planet gas transmission spectra 229

6.4 Radiative transfer in a gray atmosphere 230

6.4.1 Nadir viewing 231

6.4.2 Net flux and disk averaging 235

6.4.3 Limb viewing 237

6.4.4 Radiative balance 238

6.4.5 Local thermodynamic equilibrium 239

6.4.6 Transmission calculations 240

6.5 Scattering of light by particles 243

6.5.1 Rayleigh or dipole scattering 244

6.5.2 Mie theory 245

6.5.3 Nonspherical particles 247

6.5.4 Analytical forms of phase functions 247

6.6 Radiative transfer in scattering atmospheres 247

6.6.1 Plane-parallel approximation 248

6.6.2 Spherical atmospheres and limb viewing: Monte Carlo simulations 250

6.7 Giant planet spectra 251

6.7.1 General features of giant planet spectra: UV to microwave 251

6.7.2 Near-IR and visible reflectance spectra 252

6.7.3 Thermal-IR spectra 254

6.7.4 Microwave spectra 260

6.8 Appendix 261

6.8.1 Planck function 261

6.9 Bibliography 262

7 Sources of remotely sensed data on the giant planets 263

7.1 Introduction 263

7.2 Measurement of visible, IR, and microwave spectra 264

7.2.1 Detection of IR radiation 264

7.2.2 Radiometers/Photometers 265

7.2.3 Grating spectrometers 266

7.2.4 Michelson interferometers 267

7.2.5 Detection of microwave radiation 270

7.3 Ground-based observations of the giant planets 271

7.3.1 Terrestrial atmospheric absorption 272

7.3.2 Angular resolution 273

7.3.3 Brightness 278

7.4 Ground-based visible/IR observatories 279

7.4.1 European Southern Observatory (ESO); Very Large Telescope (VLT) 280

7.4.2 The Mauna Kea observatories 282

7.4.3 Other major observatories 285

7.5 Airborne visible/IR observations 286

7.5.1 Kuiper Airborne Observatory 286

7.6 Ground-based microwave observatories 287

7.6.1 The Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 288

7.6.2 Very Large Array (VLA) 289

7.6.3 Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA) 291

7.6.4 Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 291

7.6.5 Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) 292

7.7 Space-based telescopes 292

7.7.3 Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) 300

7.7.4 Spitzer 300

7.7.5 AKARI 303

7.8 Flyby spacecraft 303

7.8.1 Pioneer 304

7.8.2 Voyager 308

7.8.3 Ulysses 312

7.8.4 New Horizons 313

7.9 Orbiting spacecraft 314

7.9.1 Galileo 314

7.9.2 Cassini/Huygens 320

7.10 Retrievals 329

7.10.1 Exact, least-squares, and Backus-Gilbert solutions 330

7.10.2 Linear optimal estimation 331

7.10.3 Nonlinear optimal estimation 333

7.10.4 Joint retrievals 335

7.11 Bibliography 335

8 Future of giant planet observations 337

8.1 Introduction 337

8.2 Ground-based visible/infrared (IR) observations 338

8.2.1 Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) 338

8.2.2 Keck Interferometer 339

8.2.3 Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) 340

8.2.4 Extremely large telescopes (ELTs) 341

8.3 Airborne visible/IR observations 343

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