Illustrations

1.1 The giant planets as observed by the Voyager spacecraft together with the Earth for comparison 2

1.2 Total thermal infrared radiation flux emitted by the giant planets as a function of latitude 5

1.3 Jupiter as observed by Cassini in December 2000 color

1.4 Jovian zonal nomenclature 6

1.5 Saturn as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in December, 1994 color

1.6 Saturn's rings behind Saturn 11

1.7 Saturn's night side as seen by Cassini ISS, with the Sun directly behind Saturn's disk color

1.8 False-color image of Saturn and its rings color

1.9 Uranus observed by Voyager 2 in 1986 color

1.10 Neptune observed by Voyager 2 in 1989 color

2.1 Molecular cloud Barnard 68 observed by the ESO Very Large Telescope... 23

2.2 Hubble Space Telescope image of a young circumstellar disk (Orion 114-426) 25

2.3 Wide-field medium-resolution near-IR image of HH212 27

2.4 Variation of nebula pressure in the circumstellar disk above the ecliptic plane 28

2.5 The Oort Comet Cloud 33

2.6 Plan view of known trans-Neptunian object orbits in the Kuiper-Edgeworth

Belt color

2.7 Measured D/H ratios of the giant planets, meteorites, and comets 45

2.8 Definition of the planetographic and planetocentric latitude systems 50

2.9 Interior models of Jupiter and Saturn 52

2.10 Interior models of Uranus and Neptune 55

4.1 Equatorial temperature/pressure profiles of the giant planet atmospheres ... 78

4.2 Variation of molar heat capacity at constant volume of molecular hydrogen with temperature 80

4.3 Variation of eddy mixing and molecular diffusion coefficients with height in the giant planet atmospheres 87

4.4 UY cross-sections of different gases relevant to giant planet atmospheres ... 93

4.5 Methane photochemistry paths 94

4.6 Voyager 1 image of Jupiter 99

4.7 Equilibrium cloud condensation model of Jupiter's atmosphere 100

4.8 Observed and modeled abundance profiles in the atmosphere of Jupiter. ... 101

4.9 Relative cloud profile of Jupiter deduced from the Galileo probe nephelometer experiment cloud results 107

4.10 False-color image of the GRS constructed from near-IR data recorded in 1996

by Galileo NIMS color

4.11 False-color picture of a convective thunderstorm color

4.12 Galileo SSI images of a convective storm and the associated lightning in Jupiter's atmosphere 110

4.13 Mean observed/modeled cloud profiles of the giant planets 111

4.14 Galileo NIMS images of Jupiter recorded in September 1996 color

4.15 Image of Saturn recorded by the HST/WFPC-2 instrument in 1990 112

4.16 Equilibrium cloud condensation model of Saturn's atmosphere 113

4.17 Observed and modeled abundance profiles in the atmosphere of Saturn . . . . 116

4.18 False-color image of Saturn color

4.19 Uranus observed by Voyager 2 in 1986 color

4.20 Equilibrium cloud condensation model of Uranus' atmosphere 122

4.21 Observed and modeled abundance profiles in the atmosphere of Uranus ... 125

4.22 Neptune observed by Voyager 2 in 1989 129

4.23 Observed and modeled abundance profiles in the atmosphere of Neptune. . . 130

4.24 Equilibrium cloud condensation model of Neptune's atmosphere 130

4.25 Close-up of Neptune's methane clouds, as observed by Voyager 2, showing shadows cast by them on the main cloud deck beneath 136

5.1 Conversion of thermal energy into energy by a Carnot heat engine 142

5.2 Zonal wind structure of the giant planets 150

5.3 Zonal wind structure of the giant planets plotted separately 151

5.4 Zonal wind structure of the giant planets superimposed onto representations of their visible appearance 152

5.5 Stone's (1976) canonical meridional flow diagram of Jupiter 153

5.6 Modified meridional flow diagram of Jupiter 154

5.7 Stone's (1976) regime diagram of the main characteristic atmospheric motion as a function of the Richardson number 158

5.8 Taylor-Proudman columns and differential cylinders 170

5.9 Stability of zonal structure of Jupiter and Saturn 171

5.10 Yortex tube-stretching associated with Taylor-Proudman columns 172

5.11 Mosaic of four HST/WFPC-2 images of Jupiter showing the evolution of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 G impact site in 1994 color

5.12 Yoyager 1 image of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and one of the STBs white ovals in

1979 color

5.13 False-color Galileo SSI image of Jupiter's Great Red Spot observed in 1996 color

5.14 Cloud features on Jupiter color

5.15 Southern hemisphere of Jupiter observed by Cassini ISS in December 2000 . 178

5.16 Three images of Jupiter observed by Cassini ISS on October 8, 2000 179

5.17 Voyager 1 image of a brown barge on Jupiter 181

5.18 The merger of the white ovals from 1997 to 2000 observed by HST 183

5.19 HST image of the GRS and Oval BA color

5.20 Two images of Jupiter's atmosphere recorded by Galileo SSI with the "violet"

filter in 1996 187

5.21 Standard Saturnian zonal nomenclature 191

5.22 Mosaic of five HST images of Saturn recorded between 1996 and 2000, showing Saturn's rings opening up color

5.23 Temperature contour map of Saturn's atmosphere retrieved from Cassini CIRS observations color

5.24 False-color mosaic of Saturn observed by Cassini VIMS in February 2006 from edge-on to the rings color

5.25 Orthographic projection of Saturn's polar temperatures in the troposphere at 100mbar and the stratosphere at 1 mbar color

5.26 Cassini ISS image of Saturn's south polar vortex (SPV), recorded in November

200 6 195

5.27 False-color image of Saturn recorded by Voyager 1 in 1980 showing the unique red oval cloud feature color

5.28 False-color composite of Saturn, showing the "Dragon Storm'' in Saturn's "storm alley'' color

5.29 Another convective thunderstorm observed by Cassini ISS in Saturn's storm alley in January 2006 198

5.30 The "Ribbon Wave'' cloud structure in Saturn's atmosphere observed by Voyager 2 199

5.31 Highly enhanced image of Saturn's cloud features observed by Voyager 2 . . color

5.32 Kelvin-Helmholtz instability waves seen at a belt/zone boundary of Saturn by Cassini ISS in 2004 201

5.33 The "String of Pearls'' color

5.34 Saturn's North Polar Hexagon, North Polar Spot, and Ribbon Wave 202

5.35 Saturn's North Polar Hexagon (NPH) as viewed by Cassini VIMS in March

200 7 204

5.36 HST/NICMOS false-color image of Uranus color

5.37 Color composite images of Uranus as observed by the Keck Observatory in July

2004 color

5.38 Three HST/WFPC-2 images of Uranus 207

5.39 Detail of Neptune's GDS and DS2 observed by Voyager 2 in 1989 210

5.40 HST image of a new "Great Dark Spot'' on Neptune, NGDS-32 212

5.41 False-color images of Neptune recorded by HST/WFPC-2 in 1996 and 1998 color

5.42 Color composite images of Neptune as observed by the Keck Observatory in August 2003 color

5.43 Cylindrical map of Neptune color

6.1 Population of rotational energy states 222

6.2 Measured line strengths at 296 K in the rotation band of CO 223

6.3 Measured line strengths at 296 K in the vibration-rotation band of CO2 . 224

6.4 Vibrational modes of CO2 226

6.5 Mid-IR to far-IR transmission of tropospheric and stratospheric gases for a solar composition path 230

6.6 Near-IR transmission of tropospheric gases for a solar composition path. . . 231

6.7 Radiative transfer in a gray plane-parallel atmosphere 232

6.8 Calculated transmission weighting functions for Jupiter 234

6.9 Variation of peak of calculated transmission weighting function with wavelength for Jupiter 234

6.10 Calculated weighting functions for Jupiter 236

6.11 Calculated limb weighting functions for Jupiter 238

6.12 Scattering angle definition 244

6.13 Mie scattering calculation 246

6.14 Examples of different Henyey-Greenstein phase functions 248

6.15 Measured and calculated geometric albedo spectra of the giant planets 253

6.16 Calculated thermal emission spectra of the giant planets for nadir viewing . . 255

6.17 Calculated thermal emission spectra of the giant planets on a log scale 256

6.18 Calculated brightness temperature spectra of the giant planets 257

6.19 Overlap spectral regions between thermal emission and reflected sunlight for the giant planets 258

6.20 Microwave and radio emission spectra of the giant planets 261

6.21 Appearance of Jupiter at 2.0, 3.56, and 6.14 cm as observed by the VLA. . . 262

7.1 Grating spectrometer layout 266

7.2 Michelson interferometer layout 268

7.3 Transmission of Earth's atmosphere from ground to space 272

7.4 Comparative sizes of the giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)

and the Earth 274

7.5 Relative apparent sizes of the giant planets as seen at opposition from the Earth with a telescope of infinite resolution 274

7.6 Relative appearance of the giant planets as seen at opposition from the Earth with typical "seeing" of approximately 1 arcsec resolution 274

7.7 Images of Uranus observed with the Keck Observatory in ambient observing conditions and with the adaptive optics system turned on 276

7.8 Two images of Uranus recorded with the Keck Observatory 277

7.9 Calculated disk-integrated irradiance spectra of the giant planets in the visible and near-infrared as seen from the Earth at opposition 279

7.10 Calculated disk-integrated irradiance spectra of the giant planets in the mid-infrared to far-infrared as seen from the Earth at opposition 280

7.11 The European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope 282

7.12 Schematic design of VLT site 283

7.13 Mauna Kea site in Hawaii 283

7.14 Schematic design of the Keck Observatory, Hawaii 284

7.15 False-color image of Jupiter obtained with UKIRT/UIST in July 2008 color

7.16 False-color image of Uranus obtained with UKIRT/UIST in July 2008 color

7.17 The Kuiper Airborne Astronomy aircraft 287

7.18 The KAO telescope looking through the aperture in the aircraft's side 288

7.19 The IRAM millimetre array at the Plateau de Bure Observatory, France . . . 290

7.20 The Very Large Array in New Mexico 290

7.21 The Nobeyama Millimeter Array in Japan 293

7.22 The Hubble Space Telescope in orbit about the Earth 294

7.23 Orbit of the Infrared Space Observatory about the Earth 296

7.24 Schematic design of ISO 297

7.25 Disk-integrated irradiance spectra of the giant planets recorded by ISO/SWS 299

7.26 Disk-integrated irradiance spectra of Jupiter and Saturn recorded by ISO/LWS 300

7.27 Disk-integrated irradiance spectra of the giant planets recorded by both ISO/

SWS and ISO/LWS, plotted together on a log-scale 301

7.28 An artist's impression of the Spitzer Space Telescope, launched in 2003 302

7.29 Pioneer 10 and 11 306

7.30 Pioneer 10 and 11 trajectories 307

7.31 Voyager 1 and 2 308

7.32 Voyager 1 and 2 trajectories 309

7.33 Current position of Pioneer and Voyager 310

7.34 Voyager IRIS instrument 311

7.35 Voyager IRIS radiance spectra of the giant planets 312

7.36 Voyager IRIS average spectra of the giant planets 313

7.37 Galileo 315

7.38 Galileo interplanetary trajectory 315

7.39 Galileo prime mission orbital design 316

7.40 Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer 318

7.41 Galileo probe descent trajectory 320

7.42 Cassini interplanetary trajectory 321

7.43 Cassini 322

7.44 Cassini prime mission orbital tour 323

7.45 Cassini CIRS instrument 327

7.46 CIRS focal plane pointing and FOV 328

7.47 CIRS weighting functions for both limb-viewing and nadir-viewing at Saturn 328

8.1 Plan of VLT site in Chile 339

8.2 Schematic design of the VLT Interferometer 340

8.3 Schematic design of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona 341

8.4 The SOFIA airborne observatory aircraft 344

8.5 Schematic appearance of the Herschel Space Telescope 346

8.6 An artist's impression of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) 348

8.7 Payload system of the Juno spacecraft 351

8.8 Artist's impression of Rosetta spacecraft approaching its target comet 353

8.9 A schematic of the Kepler telescope 357

8.10 Schematic of Kepler's optical system 358

8.11 Artist's impression of one scenario (Lockheed Study) of an IR nulling interferometer concept proposed for the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder. . . 360

8.12 How nulling interferometry works 361

8.13 Artist's impression of ESA's proposed Darwin nulling interferometer mission (Alcatel study) 363

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know all about the telescopes that can provide a fun and rewarding hobby for you and your family!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment