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r(Kr) (yr)

9.8 x 10163

5.4 x 1010064

3.1 x 105538

1.7 x 101284

2.6 x 101571

2.0 x 1031

2.5 x 106

NB. Rq is the equatorial radius at the 1 bar pressure level, and zc is the altitude of the critical level above Rq

NB. Rq is the equatorial radius at the 1 bar pressure level, and zc is the altitude of the critical level above Rq process of molecular diffusion there will be an upward flux equal to

where Dt is the molecular diffusion coefficient for the i th gas; and wi is the mean effective vertical speed. From kinetic theory considerations, the coefficient of diffusion for a single gas may be shown to be

where ci = ( - I is the mean speed of the molecules of molecular weight mt;

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