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VLT iNSTRUMENTATION d"NghidaiĀ«)

Figure 7.12. Schematic design of VLT site. Courtesy of ESO.

Figure 7.13. Mauna Kea site in Hawaii. The Keck telescopes are the twin domes seen at center right. The 8 m Subaru Telescope (with a cylindrical dome) is in front of the Kecks and behind it are (left to right): the NASA IRTF, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the Gemini North 8 m telescope (in this picture still under construction), the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, and the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). In the lower foreground are (left to right): the Smithsonian-Taiwan submillimeter array, the James Clerk Maxwell 15m submillimeter telescope, and the Caltech 10 m submillimeter telescope. Courtesy of Keck Observatory, California Institute of Technology, and Richard Wainscoat/ILA.

Astronomy.

Figure 7.14. Schematic design of the Keck Observatory, Hawaii. Courtesy of Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in

Astronomy.

Figure 7.14. Schematic design of the Keck Observatory, Hawaii. Courtesy of Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in

Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), and the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The Subaru 8.2m telescope incorporates the largest single-piece, or monolithic, mirror ever built and achieved "first light'' in January 1999. The Gemini project is an international collaboration between seven countries (U.S.A., U.K., Canada, Chile, Australia, Argentina, and Brazil) to place two identical 8.1 m telescopes in both northern and southern hemispheres to allow unobstructed observation of both northern and southern skies simultaneously. While Gemini North is located on Mauna Kea, its identical brother, Gemini South, is located at Cerro Pachon in Chile (2,737 m). The Gemini Telescope mirrors are single-piece thin mirrors whose shape is continuously adjusted by an active optics system using 120 actuators at the back of the mirror to maintain the mirror shape. Gemini North was dedicated on June 25, 1999, and Gemini-South was dedicated on January 18, 2002. The NASA IRTF is a 3 m IR telescope operated and managed for NASA by the University of Hawaii (which reserves 50% of its observing time for studying solar system objects), while CFHT is a 3.6 m telescope and UKIRT is a 3.8 m IR telescope, which have both been used for a number of planetary observations. Recent images of Jupiter and Uranus observed by the author at UKIRT are shown in Figures 7.15 and 7.16, see color section for both, respectively.

Table 7.2. Mauna Kea telescopes.

Telescope

Mirror diameter (m)

Operator

Subaru

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