Shifts in the spacecraft's radio signals are used to measure the mass, density, and gravity of the nucleus; define the comet's orbit; and study the inner coma
will focus on the in situ study of the composition and structure of the nucleus material. The prime objective of the Rosetta mission is to study the origin of comets and the relationship between cometary and interstellar material. To address these goals Rosetta will make the following measurements of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: (1) determine the dynamic properties, surface morphology, and composition of the nucleus; (2) determine the chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic compositions of volatiles and refractories in the nucleus and coma; and (3) study the development of cometary activity and the processes in the surface layer of the nucleus and the inner coma (dust/gas interaction).
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