Getting Powerful Shapely Glutes
The Aurignacian era came to an end, for unknown reasons, and its culture was replaced by that of the Gravettian, also defined by a distinctive set of stone tools. The Gravettian, which lasted from 28,000 to 21,000 years ago, stretched east into Russia, with southern provinces in Italy and astride the French-Spanish border. Gravettian people focused more on hunting mammoth than reindeer. They produced the well-known Venus figurines, with their dwarf heads, ample breasts and steatopygous buttocks, strangely reminiscent of the adaptation found among the San and the Andaman islanders. The figurines, recovered from sites stretching from France to Russia, clearly had some widely recognized importance in the Gravettian culture and were perhaps associated with a fertility cult. A less well known achievement is the invention of the bow the earliest evidence of bows and arrows first appears at the end of the 124
Basal tetrapods, had a sprawling posture, with the limbs held out sideways and the belly just above the ground (see pp. 120-5), whereas Thrinaxodon shows a more erect or upright posture with the hindlimbs pulled in closer to the body. This resolved a conflict between breathing and running at the same time that had to be faced by sprawling therapsids, and allowed the effective stride length to increase. The major joints changed their orientation and the shapes of the ends of the limb bones were much altered (Figure 10.2(d, e)). The hip bones are also very different in shape because of major changes in the layout of the leg muscles. The new primary hindlimb retractor was the gluteal muscle, the main component of the human buttocks and not a reptilian feature. The pubis and ischium of Thrinaxodon (Figure 10.2(a, e)) are reduced in size and they extend back a little, and the blade of the ilium is relatively large, especially in front.
Based on these criteria, several lines of fossil evidence suggest that ER capabilities first emerged in the genus Homo. These features are discussed at length in Bramble and Lieberman (2004), but a few that are illustrated in Fig. 8.1 merit brief mention here. First, while there are some indications in the skeleton of morphological specializations related to the mass-spring mechanics of running, features related to stabilization are more prevalent. In terms of trunk stabilization, the cranial portion of the gluteus maximus, which plays a critical role in running but not walking, has a considerably expanded origin in H. erectus relative to Australopithecus (Rose, 1984 Lieberman et al., 2006). The gluteus maximus also acts in concert with the erector spinae to stabilize the trunk, and the sacroiliac trough in which the latter originates may be considerably expanded in Homo compared to Australopithecus (see Lovejoy, 1988). Even more concrete evidence of derived mechanisms for...
Bipedalism may have helped shape the sexual anatomy of human females as well. The breasts are larger than expected when not lactat-ing and the distribution of fat on the hips, thighs, and buttocks lowers the waist-hip ratio (WHR). Both are probably fertility signals and fitness indicators. A WHR of 0.7 is nearly cross culturally considered the ideal female figure, whether the woman is thin or heavy. Women with that classic hourglass silhouette have optimal estrogen levels that is correlated to fertility. So although no males are literally measuring and calculating the WHR of potential mates, they are able to pick up on the cues from a woman's body that are linked to evolutionary fitness.
Whereas urine could be expelled from the spacecraft, faeces had to be kept on board and returned to Earth for analysis. Defecation was carried out into a bag whose adhesive flange allowed the crewman to attach it to his buttocks. Having finished his motion, the bag was removed and a germicidal sachet added. Once the bag was sealed, the sachet was ruptured and mixed with the contents by kneading.
The ovists, the father for the spermists. Second, preformationists of this kind had to face a Russian-doll-style infinite regress of homunculi within homunculi - or if not infinite, at least long enough to take us back to Eve (Adam for the spermists). The only escape from the regress would be to construct the homunculus afresh in every generation by elaborately scanning the adult body of the previous generation. This 'inheritance of acquired characteristics' doesn't happen - otherwise Jewish boys would be born without foreskins, and gym-frequenting body-builders (but not their couch-potato twins) would conceive babies with rippling six-packs, pecs and glutes.
It is a unique Wnd, so far unparalleled in the growing corpus of Neolithic and Eneolithic stone Wgurines of Sardinia. This asymmetrical statuette, with voluminous buttocks and an animal head, has been tentatively attributed to the final Upper Palaeolithic on stylistic grounds (Mussi 2003) (Fig. 10.7). Female Wgurines, engravings, and pendants, with small breasts, or lacking breasts altogether, and with protruding buttocks which give them a peculiar twisted shape, are known in western and central Europe from a number of Magdalenian sites (Bosinski 1991). The Venus of Macomer fits well into this group. The head, however, is better seen as representing the extinct Prolagus sardus. This, in turn, allows comparisons with the therianthropic6 representations which started to be produced in the EUP. They are well known in the LUP, as at Tolentino (Massi et al. 1997), Las Caldas (Corchon Rodriguez 1990), La Madeleine (Delporte 1993).
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