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Section Handguns

The advantage of a cannon small enough to be carried by a single soldier was obvious from an early date, and some hand cannons were constructed in the late 14th century however, those early handguns were ineffective. The first handguns that were at all practical were matchlock guns (invented about 1425). The harquebus, introduced about 1450, was an improvement, but it was still not a very effective weapon.

Section Technological factors that aided in those conquests

The Spanish had been using cannons and handguns prior to their discovery of the New World, whereas the American Indians had no knowledge of explosives. Still, the use of firearms was not the major factor in the Spanish conquests. Most of the Indian casualties on the battlefield were caused by simpler weapons such as swords and spears. The crucial differences in weaponry arose from the fact that the Indians were still in the Stone Age. They had no swords, and their best spears were tipped with natural glass, which was useless against the Spanish armor. In contrast, Spanish swords easily cut through any cloth or leather armor that the Indians had.

Section Russian expansion into Asia

The Russian settlers in Siberia were few in number, but because of their possession of firearms they easily dominated the Siberian aborigines. However, since the Russians were primarily interested in fur trapping, they (like the French colonists in North America) had much less conflict with the aborigines than the Spanish had in Mexico and Peru. 3) See Diamond, Jared (1999), Guns, Germs, and Steel, chapter 11. Also see McNeill, William (1988 edition), Plagues and Peoples, chapter V.

Fields Making a Difference Travel and Exploration

Airplane travelers all have a first-hand experience with magnetic fields and field measuring devices, called magnetometers. At concourse entrances, airport security personnel require all passengers to pass through a large rectangular security door (Figure 2.1). We can credit this invention to Michael Faraday's (see Figure 1.7) research on the induction of currents in conducting materials. Within the security passageway, an oscillating field is generated, which induces secondary currents in metal objects carried by the passenger. A field sensor within the door compares the phases (see Figure 1.12) of the returned and generated signal oscillations. If (because of induced fields in metal objects) a phase difference is detected, an alarm is sounded. The sensor responds to metal eyeglass frames, keys, coins, watches, knives, guns, etc. The triggering phase-difference measurement is adjusted to eliminate small effects, for example, from rings.

Postscript a word of warning

The wildlife laws do not stop the bulldozers from pushing higher and higher up the slopes of the Great Dividing Range or into the Tasmanian wilderness, the last bastions of the bare-nosed wombat. It is not necessary to kill the wombats directly the destruction of their habitat will exterminate them more quickly than guns, traps or poison. The bare-nosed wombat is not an endangered species. It is not even rare, but we would do well to remember that even the most abundant species can quickly become rare or extinct if its habitat is destroyed. It is up to us to ensure that it never becomes the Uncommon wombat.

Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields Measured by Cluster

EDI measures electric fields at the in situ spacecraft location (Paschmann et al. 2001). Electron beams with an energy of 1 keV (and 500 eV for a small number of cases) are emitted from two pairs of guns in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Electron beams subsequently experience cyclotron motion and drift motion, and fractions of the beams return to two pairs of detectors. Drift motions include both E x B and VB components, although the latter contribution is much smaller at the above beam energies in the inner magnetosphere. CLUSTER EDI actually measures drift step length during approximately one or multiple gyroperiods by triangulation and or time-of-flight methods. Here we try to determine two perpendicular components of the electric field from this drift step length.

Scaling Relations for Crater Diameter

This simple scaling invariance thus opens the door to detailed experimental study of the Deep Impact crater, providing we can find close matches to the actual material of a comet and achieve velocities similar to that of the Deep Impact collision. In fact, laboratory studies using two-stage light gas guns are limited to about 6-8 km s, but this is not very far from the actual conditions. Schultz and Ernst (this volume) describe a detailed laboratory simulation approach using just this correspondence. The main factors that spoil this rosy picture are (1) target materials that posses a rate-dependent material strength, and (2) the Earth's gravity. Although many target materials do not have this first problem, rate dependence is observed for carbonates (Larson, 1977) and other materials, especially for tensile failure, where a strong rate dependence is expected (Melosh et al., 1992), so caution is needed here. If gravity is important in limiting the crater's growth (and, depending on the...

Internal structure of Jupiter and Saturn

Pressures and temperatures rise quickly towards the center of both planets and at temperatures greater than around 3,000 K and pressures greater than around 1.4 Mbar, hydrogen is thought to change to an electron-degenerate state of pressure-ionized protons and electrons called metallic hydrogen''. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory, using shock compression of hydrogen samples with gas-guns and lasers, which have confirmed this transition (Nellis, 2000 Cauble et al., 2000 Weir et al., 1996 Nellis et al., 1995). The phase transition appears to be continuous rather than first-order and thus there is probably not a sharp boundary between the two phases in the interiors of these planets (Nellis, 2000). Rather, molecular hydrogen begins to dissociate at 0.4Mbar and is completely dissociated at Mbar. The mid-point pressure of 1.4Mbar corresponds to a fractional radius of

To Kill or Not to Kill

As we reach dry ground, I begin to ascertain who my companions are. We all rushed into the boat so quickly, our bodies and heads covered with ponchos, that I could not at first tell who I was with. This seems to be a concern for everyone, because as soon as we find a little shelter from the rain under the forest canopy we stop and huddle together - introducing ourselves and planning our mission. The leaders of our group are experienced Bigfoot trackers named Hondo and Hawk. They will be in charge of the guns. The other four of us are Bigfoot amateurs. Snake Man is a Paris local who has been invited along because of his work as an animal wrangler. When

Delivery of siRNAs to Target Cells

Lentiviral vectors are emerging as one of the best candidates currently available for delivering and stably expressing short hairpin (sh)RNAs or siRNAs in target cells (Fig. 2). Lentiviruses, unlike retroviruses such as Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV), tend to preferentially integrate downstream of active promoters within the active transcriptional unit, potentially limiting their overall oncogenicity (Wu et al. 2003). Moreover, lentiviral-based vectors are capable of transducing non-dividing cells (Buchschacher 2000) and specifically targeting the nucleus. HIV-1-, HIV-2 SIV-, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FlV)-based lentiviral vectors are produced by co-transfecting vector, packaging, and envelope into producer cells, and collecting the resultant supernatants that contain the packaged vector 48 h later (Fig. 2). Lentiviral vectors are capable of stably transducing many cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells (Gervaix et al. 1997), integrating into the target...

Genomewide association studies and inflammatory bowel disease

Perhaps of any common multifactorial disease, the greatest success seen to date with genome-wide association studies has been with Crohn's disease. From 2005 to 2008, the number of clearly replicated and defined genomic loci involved in susceptibility to this disease has increased from a widely quoted figure of two (NOD2 at 16q12 and IBD5 at 5q31, although it could be argued this is a conservative interpretation of the linkage data) to more than 30 (Barrett et al. 2008). By 2008, at least seven genome-wide scans have been performed using different population groups and SNP marker sets with extensive replication in independent cohorts (see Fig. 9.22) (Mathew 2008). The concordance between the studies for the most strongly associated loci was striking, as was the relatively modest magnitude of effect size observed. This meant that studies were relatively underpowered to define odds ratios of 1.5 or less (1.3 or below in the case of the largest study, published by the WTCCC). Meta...

Dealing with heterogeneous data types

There is every reason to search carefully for good potential markers in all kinds of data, particularly for the deep branching questions discussed earlier. Deep phylogenetic reconstructions are by their nature difficult, and all characters should be sought and used if they meet the criteria of good potential markers (Mishler 2000). However, it remains controversial how data from different sources are to be evaluated and compared (Swofford 1991). Some have argued that data sets derived from fundamentally different sources should be analyzed separately, and only common results taken as well supported (i.e. consensus tree approaches), or at least that only data sets that appear to be similar in the trees they favor should be combined (Huelsenbeck et al. 1996). Others have argued that all putative homologies should be combined into one matrix (i.e. 'total evidence' Kluge 1989 Barrett et al. 1991 Donoghue and Sanderson 1992 Mishler 1994). Theoretical arguments at present favor the latter...

Insights from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study

The WTCCC genome-wide association study of Crohn's disease analysed 469 000 SNPs in 2000 cases of Crohn's disease and 3000 shared controls (WTCCC 2007) (Section 9.3.2). A total of nine genomic loci were associated with disease susceptibility at a genome-wide level of significance, including five previously identified regions NOD2, IL23R, ATG16L1, 10q21 (14 kb telomeric to ZNF365) (Rioux et al. 2007), and a cluster of SNPs in a gene desert on 5p13.1 (Libioulle et al. 2007 WTCCC 2007) (see Fig. 9.22). Apart from IRGM, three other novel loci were found at genome-wide significance. These include SNPs at 3p21 in a region containing many genes, notably MST1 (encoding macrophage stimulating 1 protein involved in inducing phagocytosis), SNPs within NKX2-3 at 10q24.2 (encoding a homeodomain containing transcription factor protein called 'NK2 transcription factor-related locus 3' thought to influence lymphocyte migration and intestinal inflammation), and SNPs upstream of PTPN2 at 18p11...

What is Photodynamic Therapy

PDT is presently accepted as a new integrative cancer therapy 8 . Indeed, PDT is widely applied for gastrointestinal diseases including obstructing oesophageal cancer, early-stage oesophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus, hilar cholangiocarcinoma, stomach-, colon- and pancreatic cancer 9 . An example on application for cholangiocarcinoma will be hereby presented.

Total evidence or analysis of congruence of molecular and morphological character

The reckoning of two separate data sets (Figure 2.9) produces separate analyses for two individual data sets, and a consensus tree might be the minimal representation of evolutionary relationships supported by the evidence. A consensus tree extracts the parts of two other trees that are in agreement, even if they may present some apparent contradictions (Adams 1972 Swofford 1991). Consensus trees inevitably produce degradation of bifurcating nodes to multifurcations, or stars. This is not an improvement so much as an admission of uncertainty. Cases have been found (Figure 2.9), moreover, in which the total data set produces more resolution and a tree that is clearly more informative and correct than the consensus of two trees representing different data types (Barrett et al. 1991 Eernisse and Kluge 1993). Whether this can be generalized to larger numbers of informative characters is unclear.

A role for inherited factors in inflammatory bowel disease

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are types of inflammatory bowel disease - chronic inflammatory disorders affecting the intestine (Box 9.4). The evidence to support a role for inherited factors is much stronger for Crohn's disease than ulcerative colitis, although clustering of both diseases within families has been recognized since the 1960s (Kirsner and Spencer 1963). A Danish study of 637 patients with inflammatory bowel disease showed that first degree relatives of individuals with either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis had a ten-fold increased risk of the same disease (Orholm et al. 1991), while a Swedish study showed that for 1048 patients with Crohn's disease, the risk was even greater with a 21-fold higher prevalence among first degree relatives than the general population (Monsen et al. 1991). Based on many studies, the risk ratio for siblings relative to the population prevalence, Is, is currently estimated at 20-35 for Crohn's disease (Barrett et al. 2008).

Insights into the design analysis and interpretation of genomewide association studies

Much work remains to be done through increasingly large genome-wide association scans (of the order of thousands of cases) to define the remaining common variants associated with disease with modest odds ratios (of the order of 1.2). To detect such variants, appropriately conducted meta analysis of comparable scans has proved a powerful approach in diabetes (Zeggini et al. 2008) and Crohn's disease (Barrett et al. 2008). To facilitate this, and to generally promote data sharing, there is a strong consensus that the results of genome-wide association scans should be formally deposited in a transparent fashion. A number of resources have been established to enable this such as the database of Genotype and Phenotype (dbGaP) from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov sites entrez Db gap) (Mailman et al.

Debates and the geosphere

But Bretz stood by his guns and doggedly pursued his research into this enormous debacle. He painstakingly brought to light more and more detail of the flood and its effects. He managed to trace the flood down the Columbia river as far as Portland, Oregon, adding a 200 square mile delta in the Willamette Valley. In 1930, he reported his prize discovery - Glacial Lake Missoula, the source of the voluminous floodwaters. Bretz had to wait many years until his outrageous hypothesis, for so it was regarded, was vindicated. It was not until 1956, with the publication of a report on a further set of field investigations, that the sharp knives of the critics were finally turned. In a field study made in the summer of 1952, Bretz, approaching 70 years of age, discovered a criterion of undeniable validity for the occurrence of a flood

Genes versus Geography

Even though the individual members of every race may be much the same, human societies differ considerably in their levels of technology and organization. Some societies, like those of New Guinea, are just emerging from Stone Age cultures, while others, like those of Finland or Taiwan, are highly educated and lead in manufacturing sophisticated goods for the global economy. Is the difference solely because New Guineans were dealt a bad hand in terms of geography and resources, or could there be some genetic difference, maybe in the nature of sociality, that helped keep New Guineans and others in the Stone Age while propelling other peoples on a quite different trajectory Jared Diamond of the University of California, Los Angeles, has advocated a geographical answer to this question. In his book Guns, Germs, and Steel he argues that because more domesticatable species of plant and animal existed in Eurasia, agriculture got started there first, giving Europeans a head start in economic...

Chapter Before Our Very Eyes

There's a plausible indication that this may have happened even with elephants, which Darwin himself picked out as one of the slowest-reproducing animals, with one of the longest generation turnovers. One of the main causes of mortality among African elephants is humans with guns hunting ivory, either for trophies or to sell for carving. Naturally the hunters tend to pick on the individuals with the largest tusks. This means that, at least in theory, smaller-tusked individuals will be at a selective advantage. As ever with evolution, there will be conflicting selection pressures, and what we see evolving will be a compromise. Larger tuskers doubtless have an advantage when it comes to competition with other elephants, and this will be balanced against their disadvantage when they encounter men with guns. Any increase in hunting activity, whether in the form of illegal poaching or legal hunting, will tend to shift the balance of advantage towards smaller tusks. All other things being...

Running To Stay In The Same Place

Before asserting that the deceptive appearance of a grasshopper or butterfly is unnecessarily detailed, we must first ascertain what are the powers of perception and discrimination of the insects' natural enemies. Not to do so is like asserting that the armour of a battle-cruiser is too heavy, or the range of her guns too great, without inquiring into the nature and effectiveness of the enemy's armament. The fact is that in the primeval struggle of the jungle, as in the refinements of civilized warfare,* we see in progress a great evolutionary armament race - whose results, for defence, are manifested in such devices as speed, alertness, armour, spinescence, burrowing habits, nocturnal habits, poisonous secretions, nauseous taste, and procryptic, aposematic, and mimetic coloration and for offence, in such counter-attributes as speed, surprise, ambush, allurement, visual acuity, claws, teeth, stings, poison fangs, and anticryptic and alluring coloration. Just as greater speed in the...

Humans the worst enemy

The Victorian Wildlife Act was altered again in 1984 when at last the shameful law that proclaimed one of Australia's unique native animals as vermin was repealed. Instead, the wombat was declared 'protected wildlife' in most of Victoria. Due to considerable pressure from some farmers' groups, it was simultaneously declared to be 'unprotected wildlife' in certain specific areas - a total of 193 parishes - in eastern Victoria, where wombats were said to be causing problems to landholders (Figure 7.2). In these parishes landholders may take or destroy wombats 'by the use of fumigants, traps or firearms only on freehold or leasehold property or on Crown land within one kilometre of such property', except where the Crown land is also part of a national park, where wombats are fully protected. In the rest of Victoria, and in the whole of New South Wales and Tasmania, where wombats have been protected since 1974 and 1971 respectively, landholders can apply to the wildlife authorities for...

Space Shuttle Experiments

Distruptive Technologies Images

Although the experiment is often seen as an expensive failure, much scientific data had already been collected by the time the tether broke. Also, unlike during the first TSS flight, the deployment had been nearly completed without difficulty. All experiments on the satellite and the Space Shuttle worked and recorded data, and the electron guns used to eject the tether current back into the ionosphere from the orbiter worked well. Data was collected on the charged particle environment of Columbia's cargo bay, as well as on the effects of the shuttle thruster firings and water dumps on the tether and satellite. The experiment has led to important improvements in our understanding of tether dynamics.

Gene deserts and other loci

Other gene loci have been reported in genome-wide association scans. Franke and colleagues showed association with NELL1 (nel-like 1 precursor) for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and postulated a functional link with PTGER4 as Nell1-deficient mice showed downregulation of this gene (Desai et al. 2006 Franke et al. 2007). In their genome-wide association study, Rioux and colleagues identified a number of other variants including a promoter SNP of PHOX2B (encoding paired like homeobox 2B) at chromosome 4p12, FAM92B (family with sequence similarity 92, member B) at 16q24, and an intronic SNP of NCF4 (neutrophil cytosolic factor 4) at 22q13 (Rioux et al. 2007). The list of disease associated loci continues to grow, notably with analyses sufficiently powered to detect modest odds ratios of the order of 1.2 - such as the meta analysis by Barrett and colleagues that identified 21 new loci of which 19 showed replication in an independent set of 2325 Crohn's disease cases, 1809...

The Ancient and Legendary Gods of

One result of popular interest is that I receive a great deal of mail, all kinds of mail, some of it very pleasant, such as from the people who wrote poems and sonnets about the plaque on Pioneer 10 some of it from schoolchildren who wish me to write their weekly assignments for them some from strangers who want to borrow money some from individuals who wish me to check out their detailed plans for ray guns, time warps, spaceships, or perpetual motion machines and some from advocates of various arcane disciplines such as astrology, ESP, UFO-contact stories, the speculative fiction of von Danniken, witchcraft, palmistry, phrenology, tea-leaf reading, Tarot cards, the I-Ching, transcendental meditation, and the psychedelic drug experience. Occasionally, also, there are sadder stories, such as from a woman who was talked to from her shower head by inhabitants of the planet Venus, or from a man who tried to file suit against the Atomic Energy Commission for tracking his every movement...

The Caribbean or Lesser Antilles

Backtrack Defenition

There is debate as regards the extent of the arcuate feature which is so noticeable at the eastern limit of the Caribbean. Some refer to a variety of small segments of the Greater and Lesser Antilles (Pindell and Barrett, 1988). Burke (1988), however, suggests that the whole of the Lesser Antilles, and even part of the Greater Antilles, constitute one huge feature related to the penetration of the Pacific into the Caribbean (Figure 7.22). Just how a near semicircular arc could have developed from this intrusion of Pacific units between N and S America requires special pleading.

Section Was the paucity of achievements due to geographic handicaps

In Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond asserts that the technological backwardness of the peoples of SSA is not due to any deficiencies in their intelligence, but is entirely due to accidental geographic factors. His arguments are ingenious however (as was shown in section 24-3) the same geographic factors which Dr. Diamond claims favored Eurasia over SSA also favored SSA over Mesoamerica. Hence, if his theory were correct, civilization should have developed earlier, and progressed further, in SSA than in Mesoamerica. (That Mesoamerica was completely isolated from Eurasia in premodern times, whereas SSA was only partly isolated, should have made the advantage of SSA even greater.)

The Storm Before the Calm

Except for one, they were all Macdonalds. All 150 of them. Marching in a ragged column on the dirt road headed toward the glen, this was the first time the brothers, cousins, and uncles of the sprawling Macdonald clan had seen each other fully armed. Wearing the plaids of the clan, they carried an odd assortment of old blunderbusses, pistols, swords, and pikes, most of them handed down from their fathers and grandfathers. Those without guns and swords carried sharpened farm tools such as scythes and pitchforks. Across their hips, they each wore a large bag in which they carried the provisions they would need to live in the field for two or three months. weapon for want of guns a sharpened scythe, which was a long pole with a curved blade attached. Farmers used this tool for harvesting, but in battle it was an opponent's nightmare. If a Highlander got off a solid stroke of the scythe at close range, he could quite literally cut an enemy in half.

Linkage studies and other inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility loci

Cromossomo

Highly significant association was instead found for rs17221417, a SNP in modest linkage with the 3020insC polymorphism rs2066847, with a P value of 9.4 X 10-12 and an odds ratio of 1.29 (1.13-1.46) for heterozygotes and 1.92 (1.58-2.34) for homozygotes for the risk allele (WTCCC 2007). When rs2066847 was specifically investigated in replication studies it was, however, very significant (P 1.5 X 10-24) and showed the largest odds ratio in case-control analysis of any replicated Crohn's disease risk locus (Barrett et al. 2008). Figure 9.21 Chromosomal regions showing linkage with inflammatory bowel disease from a review of whole genome linkage scans. Ideogram demonstrating regions of significant linkage (dark grey shading) and suggestive linkage (light grey). Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) loci 1-9 are indicated. Redrawn and reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd Nature Reviews Genetics (Barrett et al. 2008), copyright 2008. Figure 9.21...

Section New weapons

Today, of course, armies do not use either crossbows or longbows. Both have become completely outmoded by the invention of gunpowder and its use in firearms. Gunpowder which consists of a mixture of potassium nitrate (often called saltpeter), Artillery was being used in Europe in the 1320s.4 Early cannons were rather crude weapons, and sometimes burst when they were fired. To prevent that from occurring, there was a tendency to make the barrels of the guns very thick. As a result, the early artillery pieces were extremely heavy, and had far too little mobility to be used in a battle on an open field. Eventually, gunsmiths learned how to make a firearm light enough to be carried by a single soldier. Although some primitive handguns were built in the early 15th century, handguns did not become practical battlefield weapons in pre-modern times. Indeed, until about 1800, a handgun was not as effective a weapon (taking into account range, accuracy, and rate of fire) as a longbow in the...

Summer the Year

We would make a family holiday of it. All of us, even my sister, were going to see the big guns of Kugluktuk. I could hardly contain my excitement as the school holidays slowly approached. Each long day, sitting in class, I wiled away my time, fidgeting through math and sleeping through physics. I mean, what was a boy to do when the big guns beckoned. The guns were due to start firing at 13 00 hours, and I wanted a grandstand seat. Ever since I can remember, the Kugluktuk guns had been fired every 4 years, and this time I was going to see the show. A total of 100,000 tons of sulfur was going to be placed into the stratosphere. The 200 mighty guns of the Kugluktuk range were going to fire, one after the other, again and again, a withering barrage of 50,000, two-metric ton sulfur-laden shells straight upward. Each cannon would fire 250 shells over a 48-hour period about one shell per cannon every 12 min. It was going to be an incredible show. We were seated in the...

Getting there

Some understanding of what can be endured comes from experimental studies on spacecraft or with high velocity guns. Bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus have been shown to survive impacts at over 5 km s, similar to the escape velocity for Mars.26 Of a set of samples of salt-loving microbes (halophiles) which spent

Cinderellasaurus

In his 1997 PULITZER PRiZE-winning book, Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond asked this provocative question Why was it that Europeans became world conquerors, invading distant lands and establishing colonies in the name of Spain, Portugal, Germany, England, and France Why wasn't it, say, Africans or South Americans or Australians spreading around the globe to invade Europe instead Many previous explanations incorporated either explicit or implicit notions of racism, assuming that Caucasians were somehow superior to other races. in contrast, Diamond's powerful answer pointed to a combination of external factors, including geography (the major east-west trending axis of Eurasia enabling broad diffusion of technologies), domestication (Eurasia having had more than its fair share of plants and animals with domestication potential), and population size (the larger Eurasian population providing more opportunities for invention and diffusion). Among other things, these three factors...

Bloodied Noses

Bonifazi's experiment was mounted in the payload bay on the MPESS structure and its task was to control the flow of electrical current in the tether using two electron guns. Before the break, its first performance run had successfully generated a current of 480 milliamps from the electrical charge that had collected on the satellite's surface this was 200 times greater than the levels obtained during the first TSS mission in the summer of 1992. Other experiments in Columbia's payload bay continued to operate in support of the satellite and tether until as late as 6 March. It was hoped that, even though Columbia and TSS-1R were now physically separated by thousands of kilometres, firing electron beams from guns mounted in the payload bay would still disturb the ionosphere and be detectable by the satellite's instruments. On 28 February, scientists were able to observe a sunlight-induced electrical charge on the satellite's surface as it moved through the daytime and nighttime portions...

Killer asteroid

Fossil records show that ammonites, tiny spiral-shelled marine animals, lived right up to the K-T boundary and then disappeared suddenly. It is believed that dinosaurs, who lived at the same time as ammonites and whose fossils are rare, also disappeared suddenly. But fossil records fail to tell us how long it took for the extinction to occur. Alvarez hoped that the Gubbio layer would provide an answer. Two other smoking guns have also been found. In 1996 the American scientist Frank Kyte claimed that he had found a pebble in mid-ocean 900 kilometres due west of the Chicxulub crater. The coarse-grain pebble, which is about 2.5 millimetres long, contains iron and iridium in quantities similar to meteorites. The pebble was found in a layer of rock deposited at the same time as the dinosaurs disappeared. Kyte believes it came from outer space 'There was no way a rock a few millimetres across could get there other than falling from the sky.'

Info

Figure 9.23 Effect of sample size on power to detect common alleles associated with different odds ratios. Three different genome-wide association studies of Crohn disease (Libioulle et al. 2007 Rioux et al. 2007 WTCCC 2007) and a meta analysis (Barrett et al. 2008) were analysed for power to define odds ratios of 1.2,1.3, and 1.5. Power was defined as probability of P < 10 5 in a genome-wide association scan with a multiplicative model and a risk allele frequency of 20 . Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd Nature Reviews Genetics (Barrett et al. 2008), copyright 2008.

Acknowledgements

I have been lucky in my collaborators, both philosophical and biological. Some of these coauthors will find that some of the ideas in this book are drawn from papers we have written together (citations indicate where the extractions and insertions occurred) others will find a connection to work we have done together that is less direct, but I hope they will see that it is tangible nonetheless. This book would be very different or would not exist at all (depending on how you define the same book), had it not been for my interactions with these talented people Martin Barrett, Ellery Eells (whom I miss very much), Branden Fitelson, Malcolm Forster, Christopher Lang, Richard Lewontin, Gregory Mougin, Steven Orzack, Larry Shapiro, Mike Steel, Christopher Stephens, Karen Strier, and David Sloan Wilson. I also have been lucky that many philosophers and biologists read parts of this book and reacted with criticisms and suggestions. Some even read the whole thing. Let me mention first the...

Ilrb

Transcription 3), and JAK2 at chromosome 9p24 (encoding Janus kinase 2) were associated with Crohn's disease (Fig. 9.26) (Barrett et al. 2008). Strikingly, SNPs of IL12B and STAT3 were also associated with ulcerative colitis (Fisher et al. 2008 Franke et al. 2008). Potential common mechanisms underlying autoimmune disease are also underlined by the finding that SNPs in IL12B and IL23R are associated with psoriasis (Cargill et al. 2007) while an association study of 14 500 nonsynonymous

Prologue

The conference would not have been possible were it not for a conference grant from the British Academy, funding from English Heritage and English Nature, and sponsorship from Stickynewmedia Design, Portsmouth. John Humble, English Heritage Inspector of Ancient Monuments for the East Midlands, a great friend of the Palaeolithic, has been tremendously supportive from the word go. John Barrett, head of the Department of Archaeology at Sheffield University, was greatly encouraging and Naomi Nathan provided crucial assistance in the nitty-gritty of grant administration. We warmly thank Lord Renfrew for acting as referee for the conference and Lady Renfrew for her continuing enthusiasm for Creswell.

The Shaver Mystery

Shaver Mystery Dero

Following this dream, Shaver began to hear voices during his work as a welder on an assembly line. He used two different welding guns in turn, each for a different type of weld that he had to make. He would use one gun, push it out of the way, and then duck as the next one swung into position. One of the guns began to have a very bizarre effect on Shaver, allowing him to hear voices and to know what was in the minds of his co-workers I began to notice something very strange about one of the guns. Whenever I held it, I heard voices, far-off voices of endless complexity. When I changed to the other gun of the pair, I heard nothing. Then I grabbed the gun again as it came around, and right away I knew what was in Bill's lunch box which girl Bumpy was going to take out that night the gift Hank's mother was planning to give his wife. It was a dress, and quite a dress too. (22)

The koala fur trade

Koala Trappers

To hunters' guns an assumption borne out by a closer examination of Humphrey McQueen's account. At the time McQueen was writing, 'possum' referred to the common brushtail possum and other possum species, but not the koala. In addition to the unlikely success of poison, they were unlikely to fall victim to snares as, unlike the brushtail possums, koalas come down the tree bottom first. In spite of all the protests, licence fees were received from 10 000 trappers and the open season went ahead. It must be assumed that there were many who either could not, or would not, raise the licence fee and who were happy to trap illegally. Koala hunters used all of the three methods described earlier to kill their prey snares, poison and guns and it wasn't long before the press began to run horrific stories of the treatment meted out to the koalas. Readers were told of baby koalas trying to obtain nourishment from the skinless bodies of their dead mothers and hunters skinning their catch without...

Feral Swine

Who let the hogs out In Florida, it originally was the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto about a half millennium ago in 1539 who introduced feral swine (Sus scrofa) to Florida (Towne and Wentworth 1950), and many additional introductions have followed since. This species has the greatest reproductive potential of all free-ranging large mammals in the United States (Wood and Barrett 1979 Hellgren 1999), which combined with a general absence of large predators over much of their range results in continued population increases and range expansions. Swine are well-known for their depredations on crops, livestock and wildlife (e.g., Choquenot 1996 Seward et al. 2004 USDA 2002). In addition, feral swine in Florida have been documented to harbor as many as 45 parasites and infectious diseases (Forrester 1991).

Ape Canyon

1924 Ape Canyon

The only time we shot our guns that night was when the creatures were attacking our cabin. When they would quiet down for a few minutes, we would quit shooting. I told the rest of the party, that maybe if they saw we were only shooting when they attacked, they might realize we were only defending ourselves. We could have had clear shots at them through the opening left by the chinking had we chosen to shoot. We did shoot, however, when they climbed up on our roof. We shot round after round through the roof. We had to brace the hewed-logged door with a long pole taken from the bunk bed. The creatures were pushing against it and the whole door vibrated from the impact. We responded by firing many more rounds through

Land clearing

Where land is cleared for crops or grazing, generally all wombat burrows are destroyed - work that has been made easy by the advent of the bulldozer. Some wombats may attempt to re-establish themselves, or at least to enter the cleared land and feed on its usually improved pasture. Here they are likely to come into direct conflict with farmers and graziers, particularly, as has already been discussed, in areas where rabbits are a pest - then out will come the traps and poisons and guns.

Penetration dynamics

There is no substitute for sooner or later embarking upon a series of impact penetration tests. These may be performed on a range of development models from simple 'boilerplate' structural models to instrumented prototypes and engineering models. Acceleration techniques include dropping under Earth gravity (whether by hand, drop rig, helicopter or aircraft), conventional 'powder' guns and airguns. Gas guns are usually too energetic for this field, although they are widely used to study hypervelocity impacts. A novel technique was used for acceleration of the Mars 96 penetrators, where a sideways velocity component due to strong Martian winds had to be considered. A penetrator was suspended and dropped from a parasail pulled by a car. The Mars 96 programme also used elastic 'bungee' cord acceleration to afford higher impact speeds than could be achieved from a simple drop tower. The impact testing phase is usually performed as a moving test article decelerates in a target however,...

Box Who ate my nuts

The teeth are sharp and curved, and the edges carry serrations like a steak knife - clear evidence of meat eating. Close study of the teeth also reveals minute scratches that were produced by the bones and other tough food material in the diet (Barrett & Rayfield 2006). Bones of the prey offer clues too some examples show that T. rex could penetrate deep into the bones of its victims, but also that it chomped and tore at the flesh in such a way that it sometimes left dozens of tooth marks as it stripped the bones. All these circumstantial discoveries add to a rich picture of how one fossil animal fed. Barrett, P.M. & Rayfield, E.J. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary implications of dinosaur feeding behaviour. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21, 217-24. Barrett, P.M. & Rayfield, E.J. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary implications of dinosaur feeding behaviour. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21, 217-24.

Jaundice after PDT

Prasad et al. reported on correlation of histology with biomarker status after photodynamic therapy in Barrett esophagus 43 . Prasad concluded that histologic downgrading of dysplasia after photodynamic therapy was associated with the loss of biomarkers that have been associated with progression of neoplasia in Barrett esophagus 43 .

The Hollow Earth

On the third day of their journey they encountered a race of tall, blue-skinned people. Using an electronic device, the Blues were able to communicate with their visitors. The surface dwellers learned that the Blues were representatives of a great subterranean civilization, whose origins predated those of surface civilizations by thousands of years, perhaps stretching back to the ancient days of Atlantis. They shared the deep caverns with the giant insects and reptiles and with a race of hairy Sasquatch-like creatures. These creatures were exceptionally violent and seemed to be engaged in an eternal struggle with the giant reptiles. The Sasquatch had the advantage, however, as they were armed for their conflicts with laser guns.