Homo Erectus Bibliography

Aiello, L. C., and J. Wells. 2002. Energetics and the evolution of the genus Homo. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 323—38.

Aiello, L. C., and P. L. Wheeler. 1995. The expensive tissue hypothesis: The brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology 36: 199-221.

Aigner, J. 1987. Correlations 18O et Localité 1 de Chou-Kou-Tien. LAnthropologie 91: 733-48.

Ambrose, S. 2001. Paleolithic technology and human evolution. Science 291: 1748-53.

Andersson, J. G. 1925. Archaeological research in Kansu. Chinese Geological Survey, Series A, No. 5.

-. 1928. The Dragon and Foreign Devils. Little, Brown, Boston.

-. 1934. Children of the Yellow Earth: Studies in Prehistoric China. Kegan Paul,

Trench, Trubner & Company, London.

-. 1943. Researches into the prehistory of the Chinese. The Museum of Far Eastern

Antiquities (Ostasiatiska Samlingarna) Stockholm, Bulletin 15: 1-304.

Anton, S. 2002. Evolutionary significance of cranial variation in Asian Homo erectus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 118: 301-23.

Anton, S., and K. J. Weinstein. 1999. Artificial cranial deformation and fossil Australians revisited. Journal of Human Evolution 36: 195-209.

Anton, S. C., W. R. Leonard, and M. L. Robertson. 2002. An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 773-85.

Anton, S., S. Marquez, and K. Mowbray. 2002. Sambungmacan 3 and cranial variation in Asian Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 555-62.

Ardrey, R. 1961. African Genesis; A Personal Investigation into the Nature of Man. Ath-eneum, New York.

Arribas, A., and P. Palmqvist. 1998. Taphonomy and paleoecology of an assemblage of large mammals. Hyaenid activity in the lower Pleistocene site at Venta Micena (Orce, Guadix-Baza Basin, Granada, Spain). Geobios 31 (3, supplement): 3—47.

Arsuaga, J. L., I. Martinez, C. Lorenzo, A. Gracia, A. Munoz, O. Alonso, and J. Gallego. 1999. The human cranial remains from Gran Dolina Lower Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 37: 431—57.

Asfaw, B., W. H. Gilbert, Y. Beyene, W. K. Hart, P. R. Renne, G. WoldeGabriel, E. S. Vrba, and T. White. 2002. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 416: 317-20.

Asfaw, B., T. D. White, O. Lovejoy, B. Latimer, S. Simpson, and G. Suwa. 1999. Australopithecus garhi: A new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 284: 629-35.

Aziz, F. 2002. New discovery of a hominid skull from Cemeng, Sambungmacan, Central Java: an anouncement. Jurnal Geologi dan Sumberdaya Mineral 12: 2-7.

Baba, H. 1996. Reviving Pithecanthropus. Yomiuri Shinbun, Tokyo.

Baba, H., F. Aziz, Y. Kaifu, G. Suwa, R. T. Kono, and T. Jacob. 2003. Homo erectus calvarium from the Pleistocene of Java. Science 299: 1384-88.

Bartsiokas, A. 2002. Hominid cranial bone structure: A histological study of Omo 1 specimens from Ethiopia using different microscopic techniques. Anatomical Record 267: 52-59.

Bar-Yosef, O. 1998. Early colonizations and cultural continuities in the Lower Paleolithic of Western Asia. In Early Human Behavior in Global Context: The Rise and Diversity of the Lower Palaeolithic Record. Edited by M. Petraglia and R. Korisettar. Routledge, London, pp. 221-79.

Bar-Yosef, O., and A. Belfer-Cohen. 2000. Early human dispersals: The unexplored constraint of African diseases. In Early Humans at the Gates of Europe. Edited by D. Lordkipanidze, O. Bar-Yosef, and M. Otte. Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Dmanisi, Tbilisi, Georgia. Études et Recherches Archaeologiques de l'Université de Liège 92: 79-86.

-. 2001. From Africa to Eurasia—Early dispersals. Quaternary International 75:

Beeman, C. L. 1959. Peking Man: Letters. Science 130: 416.

Bilsborough, A. 2000. Chronology, variability and evolution in Homo erectus. Variability and Evolution 8: 5-30.

Binford, L. R., and C. K. Ho. 1985. Taphonomy at a distance: Zhoukoudian, "the cave home of Beijing man?" Current Anthropology 26: 413-42.

Binford, L. R., and N. M. Stone. 1986. Zhoukoudian: A closer look. Current Anthropology 27: 453-75.

Black, D. 1925. Asia and the dispersal of primates. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 4 (2) 133-83.

-. 1926. Tertiary man in Asia: The Choukoutien discovery. Nature 118: 733-34.

-. 1927. The lower molar hominid tooth from the Chou Kou Tien deposit.

Palaeontologia Sinica, Series D, 7(1): 1-28.

-. 1928. A Study of Kansu and Honan Aeneolithic skulls and specimens from

Later Kansu prehistoric sites in comparison with North China and other recent crania. I. On measurement and identification. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series D, 6(1): 1-83.

-. 1929. Preliminary note on additional Sinanthropus material discovered in Chou

Kou Tien in 1928. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, 8: 15-32.

-. 1931a. On the adolescent skull of Sinanthropus pekinensis in comparison with an adult skull of the same species and with other hominid skulls, recent and fossil.

Palaeontologia Sinica, Series D, 7(2): 1-144.

-. 1931b. Evidences of the use of fire by Sinanthropus. Bulletin of the Geological

Society of China 11: 107-98.

Black, D., P. Teilhard de Chardin, C. C. Young, and W. C. Pei. 1933. Fossil Man in China: The Choukoutien Cave Deposits with a Synopsis of Our Present Knowledge of the Late Cenozoic in China. Memoirs of the Geological Society of China, Peiping, Series A, No. 11.

Blumenshine, R., J. A. Cavallo, and S. D. Capaldo. 1994. Competition for carcasses and early hominid behavioral ecology: A case study and conceptual framework. Journal of Human Evolution 27: 197-213.

Boaz, N. T. 1975. Interview with G.H.R. von Koenigswald. Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt.

-. 1979. Early hominid population densities: New estimates. Science 206: 592-95.

-. 1981. History of American paleoanthropological research on early Hominidae,

1925-1980. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 56: 397-406.

-. 1997b. Calibration and extension of the record of Plio-Pleistocene Hominidae.

In Biological Anthropology: The State of the Science, 2nd ed. Edited by N. T. Boaz and L. Wolfe. International Institute of Human Evolutionary Research, Bend, Oregon, pp. 25-52.

Boaz, N. T., and A. J. Almquist. 2002. Biological Anthropology, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.

Boaz, N. T., and R. L. Ciochon. 2001. The scavenging of "Peking Man." Natural History 110: 46-51.

Boaz, N. T., and F. C. Howell. 1977. A gracile hominid cranium from upper Member G of the Shungura Formation, Ethiopia. American Journal Physical Anthropology 46: 93-108.

Boaz, N. T., D. Ninkovich, and M. Rossignol-Strick. 1982. Paleoclimatic setting for

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Naturwissenschaften 69: 29—33.

Boaz, N. T., P. Pavlakis, and A. S. Brooks. 1990. Late Pleistocene-Holocene human remains from the Upper Semliki, Zaire. In Evolution of Environments and Homi-nidae in the African Western Rift Valley. Edited by N. T. Boaz. Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir, No. 1., pp. 3-14.

Boaz, N. T., R. L. Ciochon, Q. Xu, and J. Liu. 2000. Large mammalian carnivores as a taphonomic factor in the bone accumulation at Zhoukoudian. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, Supplement 19: 224-34.

Boesch, C., and H. Boesch. 1990. Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 54: 86-99.

Boule, M. 1937. Le Sinanthrope. L'Anthropologie 47: 1-22.

Brain, C. 1981. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bräuer, G. 1994. How different are Asian and African Homo erectus? Courier ForschungsInstitut Senckenberg 171: 301-18.

Breuil, H. 1931. Le feu et l'industrie lithique et osseuse à Choukoutien. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11: 147-54.

-. 1939. Bone and antler industry of the Choukoutien Sinanthropus site. Palae-

ontologia Sinica New Series D, 6: 1-93.

Brodrick, A. H. 1963. The Abbé BreuilPrehistorian. A Biography. Hutchinson, London.

Brown, F. 1994. Development of Pliocene and Pleistocene chronology of the Turkana Basin, East Africa, and its relation to other sites. In Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell. Edited by R. S. Corruccini and R. L. Ciochon. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 285-312.

Brown, F., J. Harris, R. E. Leakey, and A. Walker. 1985. Early Homo erectus skeleton from West Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 316: 788-92.

Brown, P. 1994. Cranial vault thickness in Asian Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 17: 33-46.

Cann, R. L., M. Stoneking, and A. C. Wilson. 1987. Mitochondrial DNA and human origins. Nature 325: 31-36.

Chaney, R. 1935. The food of "Peking man." Carnegie Inst. Washington, News Serv. B, 3(25): 198-202.

Chia, L. (Jia, L.). 1978. A note on the weather conditions in Zhoukoudian area of Peking Man's time. Acta Stratigraphica Sinica 2: 53-56.

Chiu, C., Y. M. Ku, Y. Y. Chang, and S. S. Chang. 1973. Peking man fossils and cultural remains newly discovered at Choukoutien. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 11: 109-131.

Chow, T., and Y. H. Li. 1960. Report on the excavation of the Choukoutien Sinanthropus site in 1959. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 2: 97-99.

Ciochon, R. L. 1995. The earliest Asians Yet. Natural History 104(12): 50-54.

-. 1996. How it all started? A cave in China sheds new light on man's presence in

Ciochon, R. L., and J. W. Olsen. 1991. Paleoanthropological and archaeological discoveries from Lang Trang Caves: A new Middle Pleistocene hominid site from northern Vietnam. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 10: 59-73.

Ciochon, R. L., and J. G. Fleagle. 1993. The Human Evolution Source Book. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Ciochon, R. L. and R. Larick. 2000. Early Homo erectus tools in China. Archaeology

Ciochon, R. L., and K. L. Eaves-Johnson. 2003. China: Archaeological Caves. In Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science. Edited by J. Gunn. Fitzroy Dearborn, New York and London, pp. 221-25.

Ciochon, R., J. Olsen, and J. James. 1990. Other Origins: The Search for the Giant Ape in Human Prehistory. Bantam Doubleday, New York.

Ciochon, R. L., Vu The Long, R. Larick, L. González, R. Grün, J. de Vos, C. Yonge, L. Taylor, H. Yoshida, and M. Reagan. 1996. Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93: 3016-20.

Clark, J. D., and J. W. K. Harris. 1986. Fire and its roles in early hominid lifeways.

African Archaeological Review 3: 3-29.

Coon, C. S. 1962. The Origin of Races. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Compiling Group of the Atlas. 1980. Atlas of Primitive Man in China. Science Press, Beijing.

Cronin, J., N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, and Y. Rak. 1981. Tempo and mode in hominid evolution. Nature 292: 113-22.

Dart, R. A. 1925. Australopithecus africanus, the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115: 195-99.

DeGusta, D., W. H. Gilbert, and S. P. Turner. 1998. Hypoglossal canal size and hominid speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96: 1800-4.

Dinesen, I. (K. Blixen). 1937. Out of Africa. Putnam, London.

Djubiantono, T., and F. Sémah. 1993. L'íle de Java son peuplement. In Le Pithecanthrope de Java. Edited by F. Sémah, A.-M. Sémah, and T. Djubiantono. Les Dossiers d'Archéologie, No. 184, pp. 12-19.

Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press, New York.

-. 1942. Races and methods of their study. Transactions of the New York Academy of

Sciences 4: 115-33.

Duarte, C., J. Mauricio, P. B. Pettitt, P Souto, E. Trinkaus, H. van der Plicht, and J. Zilhao. 1999. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96: 7604—9.

Dubois, E. 1894. Pithecanthropus erectus, eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java. Landesdruckerei, Batavia, Java.

Elgar, M. A., and B. J. Crespi (editors). 1992. Cannibalism: Ecology and evolution among diverse taxa. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Eller, E. 2002. Population extinction and recolonization in human demographic history.

Mathematical Biosciences 177/178: 1—10.

Falk, D. 1992. Braindance. Henry Holt, New York.

Fernandez, Y., J. C. Diez, I. Caceres, and J. Rosell. 1999. Human cannibalism in the early Pleistocene of Europe (Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerco, Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 37: 591—622.

Fleagle, J. G. 1998. Primate Evolution and Adaptation, 2nd ed. Academic Press, London.

Flint, R. F. 1971. Glacial and Quaternary Geology. Wiley, New York.

Fortuyn, A. B. D. 1942. Excerpt from report of Dr. Fortuyn on Department of Anatomy, P.U.M.C.—Part Two, dated December 5, 1941, with cover memorandum from "AMP" [Agnes M. Pearce, Secretary, China Medical Board, Inc.]. Rockefeller Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

Gabunia, L., A. Vekua, and D. Lordkipanidze. 2000. The environmental contexts of early human occupation of Georgia (Transcaucasia). Journal of Human Evolution 38(2): 785-802.

Gallenkamp, C. 2001. Dragon Hunter: Roy Chapman Andrews and the Central Asiatic Expeditions. Viking, New York.

Gibney, F. (editor). 1995. Senso, The Japanese Remember the Pacific War. Armonk, N.Y.

Goldberg, P., S. Weiner, O. Bar-Yosef, Q. Wu, and J. Liu. 2001. Site formation processes at Zhoukoudian, China. Journal of Human Evolution 41: 483-530.

Goren-Inbar, N., C. S. Feibel, K. L. Verosub, Y. Melamed, M. E. Kislev, E. Tchernov, and I. Saragusti. 2000. Pleistocene milestones on the out-of-Africa corridor at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Science 289: 944-47.

Gregory, W. K. 1949. Franz Weidenreich, 1873-1948. American Anthropologist 51: 85-90.

Groves, C. P, and V. Mazak. 1975. An approach to the taxonomy of the Hominidae: Gracile Villafranchian hominids of Africa. Casopis pro Mineralogii a Geologii 20: 225-47.

Grün, R. 2000. Electron spin resonance dating. In Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology. Edited by E. Ciliberto and G. Spoto. Chemical Analysis Series, Vol. 15. John Wiley, New York, pp. 641-79.

Grün, R., P. H. Huang, X. Wu, C. B. Stringer, A. G. Thorne, and M. McCulloch. 1997. ESR analysis of teeth from the palaeoanthropological site of Zhoukoudian, China.

Journal of Human Evolution 32: 83—91.

Gue, S., S. Liu, and F. Zhang. 1980. Age determination of Peking Man by fission track dating [In Chinese]. Kexue Tong Bao 25: 535.

Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. Fischer, Jena.

Hasebe, K. 1915. Notes on the local customs of the Marshall Islands. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo 30(7): 278—79.

-. 1948. A human innominate bone from Lower Pleistocene deposits at Nishiyagi,

Akashi, Japan. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Nippon 60: 32—36.

Hawks, J. 2003. The browridge: Pleistocene body armor. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 36: 112.

Hawks, J., K. Hunley, S. Lee, and M. Wolpoff. 2000. Population bottlenecks and Pleistocene human evolution. Molecular Biological Evolution 17: 2—22

Heberer, G. 1963. Über einen neuen archanthropinen typus aus der Oldoway-Schlucht.

Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 53: 171—77.

Heslop, D., M. J. Dekkers, and C. G. Langereis. 2002. Timing and structure of the mid-Pleistocene transition: Records from the loess deposits of northern China.

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 185: 133—43.

Hoberg, E., N. L. Alkire, A. de Queiroz, and A. Jones. 2001. Out of Africa: Origins of the Taenia tapeworms in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 268(1469): 781-87.

Hood, D. 1964. Davidson Black, A Biography. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Hopwood, D. E. 2003a. Behavioural differences in the early to mid-Pleistocene: Were African and Chinese Homo erectus really that different? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 36: 117-18.

-. 2003b. Examination and interpretation of behavioural change in Homo erectus populations from Africa and China. Unpublished master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, N.Y.

Hou, Y., R. Potts, Y. Baoyin, G. Zhengtang, A. Deino, W. Wei, J. Clark, X. Guangmao, and H. Weiwen. 2000. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose Basin, South China. Science 287: 1622-26.

Houghton, H. S. 1941. Letter to Edwin Lobenstine (April 10, 1941). Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

Howell, F. C. 1965. Early Man. Time-Life, New York.

-. 1999. Paleodemes, species, clades and extinctions in the Pleistocene. Journal of

Anthropological Research 55: 191-243.

Howells, W. W. 1980. Homo erectus—Who, when, and where: A survey. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 23: 1—23.

Hrdlicka, A. 1920. Shovel-shaped teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 3:


Hsu, J. 1965. The climatic conditions in north China during the time of Sinanthropus [in Chinese]. Scientia Sinica 15: 410-14.

Hu, C. 1990. Letter to Lanpo Jia (March 4, 1977), reprinted in The Story ofPeking Man, from Archaeology to Mystery. Edited by L. Jia and W. Huang. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 160-61.

Huang, W. 1960. Re-study of the CKT Sinanthropus deposits. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 2: 83-96.

Huang, W., R. L. Ciochon, Y. Gu, R. Larick, Q. Fang, C. Yonge, J. de Vos, H. Schwarcz, and W. Rink. 1995. Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature 378: 275-78.

Huffman, O. F. 2001. Geologic context and age of the Perning/Mojokerto Homo erectus, East Java. Journal of Human Evolution 40: 353-62.

Ingersoll, E. 1928. Dragons and Dragon Lore. Payson & Clarke, New York.

Isaac, G. L. 1975. Sorting out the muddle in the middle: An anthropologist's postconference appraisal. In After the Australopithecines. Edited by K. Butzer and G. L. Isaac. Mouton, The Hague, pp. 875-87.

Isbell, L. A., J. D. Pruetz, M. Lewis, and T. P Young. 1998. Locomotor activity differences between sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): Implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in Homo. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 105: 199-207.

Janus, C., and W. Brashler. 1975. The Search for Peking Man. Macmillan, New York.

Jia, L. (editor). 1999. Chronicle of Zhoukoudian (1927—1937). Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, Shanghai.

-. 2000. Chronicle of Zhoukoudian (1927—1937). Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, Shanghai.

Jia, L., and W. Huang. 1990. The Story ofPeking Man, from Archaeology to Mystery. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Johnsgard, P., and K. Johnsgard. 1982. Dragons and Unicorns: A Natural History. St. Martins Press, New York.

Jouy-Avantin, F., A. Debenath, A.-M. Moigne, and H. Mone. 2003. A standardized method for the description and the study of coprolites. Journal of Archaeological Science 30(3): 367-72.

Jurmain, R., L. Kilgore, W. Trevathan, and H. Nelson. 2003. Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 9th ed. Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif.

Kay, R., M. Cartmill, and M. Balow. 1998. The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95:


Keith, A. 1927. The brain of Anatole France. British Medical Journal 2: 1048-49.

Klein, R. 1999. The Human Career. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Klein, R. G., and B. Edgar. 2002. The Dawn of Human Culture. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Koenigswald, G. H. R. von. 1931a. Sinanthropus, Pithecanthropus en de ouderdom van de Trinil-Lagen. Mijningenieur 1931: 198-202.

-. 1931b. Fossilen uit Chineesche apotheen in West-Java. Mijningenier 1931:


-. 1932. Versteinerungen als Azneimittel bei den Chinesen auf Java. Natur und

-. 1936. Erste Mittelung über einen fossilen Hominiden aus dem Altpleistozän

Ostjavas. Natur und Museum 62: 292-95.

-. 1937. Ein Underkieferfragment des Pithecanthropus aus dem Trinilschichten

Mittlejavas. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wetenschappen 40: 883-93.

--. 1938. Ein neuer Pithecanthropus-Schädel. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van

Wetenschappen 42: 185-92.

-. 1952. Gigantopithecus blacki von Koengiswald, a giant fossil hominoid from the

Pleistocene of southern China. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 291-326.

-. 1956. Meeting Prehistoric Man. Harper & Brothers, New York.

-. 1976. The Evolution of Man. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Koenigswald, G. H. R. von, and F. Weidenreich. 1938. Discovery of an additional Pithecanthropus skull. Nature 142: 715.

-. 1939. The relationship between Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus. Nature 144:


Krantz, G. S. 1980. Sapienization and speech. Current Anthropology 21: 773-92.

Krings, M., H. Geisert, R. W. Schmitz, H. Krainitzki, and S. Paabo. 1999. DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the Neandertal type specimen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96: 5581-85.

Kung, Z. 1981. Discussion on the environmental changes during Peking Man's time and earlier or later than it as viewed from the analysis of pollen [In Chinese]. Kexue Tong

Laitman, J., and R. C. Heimbuch. 1982. The basicranium of Plio-Pleistocene hominids as an indicator of their upper respiratory systems. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 59: 323-43.

Larick, R., and R. L. Ciochon. 1996a. The African emergence and early Asian dispersals of the genus Homo. American Scientist 84: 538—51.

-. 1996b. The first Asians. Archaeology 49(1): 51-53.

Larick, R., R. L. Ciochon, and Y. Zaim. 1999. Fossil Farming in Java. Natural History 108(6): 54-57.

-. 2004. Homo erectus, and the emergence of Sunda in the Tethys Realm. Athena

Review: The Journal of Archaeology, History, and Exploration 4(1): 32-39.

Larick, R., R. L. Ciochon, Y. Zaim, Sudijono, Suminto, Y. Rizal, F. Aziz, J. Arif, M. Reagan, and M. Heizler. 2001. Early Pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar ages for Bapang Formation hominins, Central Java, Indonesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 4866-71.

Leakey, L. 1961. New finds at Olduvai Gorge. Nature 189: 649-50.

Leakey, L., P. V. Tobias, and J. R. Napier. 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202: 7-9.

LeCount, E. R., and C. W. Apfelbach. 1920. Pathologic anatomy of traumatic fractures of the cranial bones and concomitant brain injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association 74: 501-11.

Le Fort, R. 1901. Etude experimentale sur les fractures de la machoire supérieure. Revue de Chirurgie 23: 201-10.

Lewin, R. 1989. Bones of Contention. Simon & Schuster, New York.

Li, M. S., and N. Yue. 2000. Search for Peking Man [In Chinese]. Hua Xia Publishers, Beijing.

Lin, J. 1999. Mystery of the Missing Ancient Skulls. Detroit Free Press, May 17, 1999. (http://www.100megsfree4.com/farshores/skulls.htm).

Lin, S. 1994. Zhoukoudian Peking Man Site: A World's Significant Site of Cultural Importance. Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.

Liu, Z. 1985. Sequence of sediments at Locality 1 in Zhoukoudian and correlation with loess stratigraphy in northern China and with the chronology of deep-sea cores. Quaternary Research 23: 139-53.

MacLarnon, A. 1993. The vertebral canal. In The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton. Edited by A. Walker and R. Leakey. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 35990.

Matthew, W. D. 1939. Climate and Evolution. Academy of Natural Sciences, New York.

Mayr, E. 1950. Taxonomic categories in fossil hominids. In Origins and Evolution of Man. Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. Vol. 15. The Biological Laboratory, Cold Springs Harbor, N.Y., pp. 109-18.

McCown, T. D., and A. Keith. 1937-39. The Stone Age of Mount Camel. II. The Fossil Human Remains from the Levalloiso-Mousterian. Clarendon, Oxford.

Milius, S. 2001. Tapeworms tell tales of deeper human past. Science News 159: 215—6.

Moore, R. 1953. Men, Time and Fossils: The Story of Evolution. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Mortier, J., and M. L. Auboux. 1966. Teilhardde Chardin Album. Harper & Row, New York.

Movius, H. L. 1969. Lower Paleolithic archaeology in southern Asia and the Far East. In Studies in Physical Anthropology: Early Man in the Far East. Edited by W. W. Howells. Anthropological Publications, Netherlands, pp. 17-77.

O'Connell, J., K. Hawkes, and N. G. Blurton Jones. 1999. Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution 36: 461-86.

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (accessed July, 2003).

Opitz, J. M., and M. C. Holt. 1990. Microcephaly: General considerations and aids to nosology. Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 10(2): 175204.

Osborn, H. F. 1922. Hesperopithecus, the first anthropoid primate found in America.

American Museum Novitates, No. 37: 1-5.

-. 1924. American men of the dragon bones. Natural History 24(3): 350-65.

Oosterzee, P. van. 2000. Dragon Bones: The Story of Peking Man. Perseus, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Pei, J., and J. Sun. 1979. Thermoluminescence ages of quartz in ash materials from Homo erectuspekinensis site and its geological implication [In Chinese]. Kexue Tong Bao 24: 849.

Pei, W. 1929. An account of the discovery of an adult Sinanthropus skull in the Choukoutien cave deposit. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 8: 203-5.

-. 1931a. Notice of the discovery of quartz and other stone artifacts in the Lower

Pleistocene hominid-bearing sediments of the Choukoutien cave deposit. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11: 109-46.

-. 1931b. Mammalia remains from Locality 5 at Choukoutien. Palaeontologia Sinica,

-. 1931c. The age of Choukoutien fossiliferous deposits. Bulletin of the Geological

Society of China 10: 165-78.

-. 1933. A preliminary report on the Late-Paleolithic cave of Choukoutien. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 13: 327-58.

---. 1936. On the mammalian remains from Locality 3 at Choukoutien.

Palaeontologia Sinica, Series C, 7: 1-120.

-. 1937a. Histoire des découvertes et organisation des fouilles. Bulletin de la Société

Préhistorique Française 34: 354-66.

-. 1937b. Le rôle des phénomènes naturels dans l'éclatement et le façonnement des roches dures utilisées par l'homme prehistorique. Revue Géologique Physique et Géologique Dynamique 9: 1—78.

-. 1937c. Les fouilles de Choukoutien en Chine. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique

-. 1939. A preliminary study on a new palaeolithic station known as Locality 15

within the Choukoutien region. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 19: 147—87.

Pei, W., and S. Zhang. 1985. A Study of the Lithic Artifacts of Sinanthropus. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 12: 1—277. Science Press, Beijing.

Pope, G. G. 1983. Evidence on the age of the Asian Hominidae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 80: 4988-92.

-. 1988a. Current issues in Far Eastern paleoanthropology. In The Palaeoenviron-

ment of East Asia from the Mid-Tertiary. Vol. II. Edited by P. Whyte et al. University of Hong Kong Centre of Asian Studies, Hong Kong, pp. 1097-1123.

-. 1988b. Recent advances in Far Eastern paleoanthropology. Annual Review of

Anthropology 17: 43-77.

-. 1989. Bamboo and Human Evolution. Natural History 10: 49-57.

-. 1993. Ancient Asia's cutting edge. Natural History 5: 55-59.

Potts, R. 1996. Humanity's Descent: The Consequences of Ecological Instability. Morrow, New York.

Proctor, R. 1988. From Anthropologie to Rassenkunde in the German anthropological tradition. In Bones, Bodies, Behavior. Essays on Biological Anthropology. History of Anthropology, Vol. 5. Edited by G. W. Stocking, Jr. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 138-79.

Provine, W. B. 1986. Sewell Wright and Evolutionary Biology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Qian, F., J. Zhang, and J. Li. 1980. Magnetostratigraphic study of the cave deposit containing fossil Peking Man at Zhoukoudian [In Chinese]. Kexue Tong Bao 25: 359.

Rasky, H. (editor). 1977. The Peking Man Mystery. Canadian Broadcasting Company, Toronto.

Reader, J. 1981. Missing Links, The Hunt for Earliest Man. Little, Brown, Boston.

Rightmire, G. P. 1990. The Evolution of Homo erectus: Comparative Anatomical Studies of an Extinct Human Species. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

-. 1998. Human evolution in the Middle Pleistocene: The role of Homo heidel-

bergensis. Evolutionary Anthropology 6: 218-27.

-. 2001. Patterns of hominid evolution and dispersal in the Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary International 75: 77-84.

Rogers, L. F. 1992. Radiology of Skeletal Trauma. Churchill Livingstone, New York.

Rothschild, B. M., I. Hershkovitz, and C. Rothschild. 1995. Origin of yaws in the Pleistocene. Nature 378: 343.

Rowlett, R. 1999. Did the use of fire for cooking lead to a diet change that resulted in the expansion of brain size in Homo erectus from that of Australopithecus africanus? Science 283: 2005.

Ruff, C. 1991. Climate and body shape in hominid evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 21: 81-105.

Sartono, S. 1971. Observations on a new skull of Pithecanthropus erectus (Pithecanthropus VIII) from Sangiran, Central Java. Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg74(2): 185-94.

Saunders, J. J., and B. K. Dawson. 1998. Bone damage patterns produced by extinct hyena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Mammalia: Carnivora), at the Haro River Quarry, Northwestern Pakistan. In Advances in Vertebrate Paleontology and Geochronology. Edited by Y. Tomida, L. J. Flynn, and L. L. Jacobs. National Science Museum Monographs, No. 14, Tokyo, pp. 215-42.

Savage, R. J. G., and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammalian Evolution: An Illustrated Guide. Facts on File, New York.

Schick, K. D., and N. S. Toth. 1993. Making Silent Stones Speak: Human Evolution and the Dawn of Technology. Simon & Schuster, New York.

Schick, K. D., N. S. Toth, W. Qi, J. D. Clark, and D. Etler. 1991. Archaeological perspectives in the Nihewan Basin, China. Journal of Human Evolution 27: 13-26.

Schlosser, M. 1903. Die fossilen Säugethiere Chinas. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften II, 150: 22.

Semaw, S., P. Renne, J. W. K. Harris, C. S. Feibel, R. L. Bernor, N. Fesseha, and K. Mowbray. 1997. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia. Nature 385: 333-36.

Semaw, S. 2000. The world's oldest stone artifacts from Gona, Ethiopia: Their implications for understanding stone technology and patterns of human evolution between 2.6-1.5 million years ago. Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 1197-214.

Shapiro, H. 1974. Peking Man: The Discovery, Disappearance and Mystery of a Priceless Scientific Treasure. Simon & Schuster, New York.

Shen, G., and L. Jin. 1993. Restudy of the upper age limit of Beijing man site. International Journal of Anthropology 8: 95-98.

Shen, G., T. L. Ku, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, Z. Yuan, and Q. Wang. 2001. High-precision U-series dating of Locality 1 at Zhoukoudian, China. Journal of Human Evolution 41: 679-88.

Shen, G., W. Wang, Q. Wang, J. Zhao, K. Collerson, C. Zhou, and P. V. Tobias. 2002. U-series dating of Liujiang hominid site in Guangxi, southern China. Journal of Human Evolution 43(6): 817-29.

Shen, L., S. Zhang, and J. Li. 1981. Mineral composition of clastic cave deposits from the site of Peking Man and its implications [In Chinese]. Scientia Geologica Sinica 1: 60-72.

Shipman, P. 2001. The Man Who Found the Missing Link: Eugene Dubois and His Lifelong Quest to Prove Darwin Right. Simon & Schuster, New York.

Sigmon, B., and J. S. Cybulski (editors). 1981. Homo erectus: Papers in Honor ofDavidson Black. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Sillen, A., G. Hall, and R. Armstrong. 1998. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in modern and fossil food-webs of the Sterkfontein Valley: Implications for early hominid habitat preferences.

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62: 2463-78.

Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and the classification of mammals.

Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 85: 1-350.

-. 1964. Tempo and Mode in Evolution. Hafner, New York.

Smith, G. E. 1932. The discovery of primitive man in China. In Smithsonian Report for 1931. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 531-47.

Smith, F., E. Trinkaus, P. B. Pettitt, I. Karavanic, and M. Paunovic. 1999. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pecina Late Pleistocene hominid remains.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96(22): 12281-86.

Spencer, F. 1990. Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery. Oxford University Press, New York.

Spencer, L. M. 1997. Dietary adaptations of Plio-Pleistocene Bovidae: Implications for hominid habitat use. Journal of Human Evolution 32: 201-28.

Stanley, S. M. 1998. Children of the Ice Age: How a Global Catastrophe Allowed Humans to Evolve. W. H. Freeman, New York.

Stringer, C. B. 1984. The definition of Homo erectus and the existence of the species in Africa and Europe. Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 69: 131-43.

Stringer, C. B. and R. McKie. 1997. African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. Henry Holt, New York.

Strum, S. C., D. Lindburg, and D. Hamburg (editors). 1999. The New Physical Anthropology: Science, Humanism, and Critical Reflection. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Swisher III, C. C., G. H. Curtis, and R. Lewin. 2000. Java Man. Scribner, New York.

Swisher III, C. C., G. H. Curtis, T. Jacob, A. G. Getty, A. Suprijo, and Widiasmoro. 1994. Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science 266: 1118-21.

Swisher III, C. C., W. J. Rink, S. C. Anton, H. P. Schwarcz, G. H. Curtis, A. Suprijo, and Widiasmoro. 1996. Latest Homo erectus in Java: Potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in southeast Asia. Science 274: 1870-74.

Tan, A. 2001. The Bonesetter's Daughter. Ballantine Books, New York.

Taplin, A. 1874. The Narrinyeri: An Account of the Tribes of South Australian Aborigines Inhabiting the Country Around the Lakes Alexandrina, Albert, and Coorong, and the Lower Part of the River Murray. E. S. Wigg and Son, Adelaide.

Taschdjian, C. 1977. The Peking Man is Missing. Harper & Row, New York.

Tattersall, I. 1995. The Fossil Trail. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tattersall, I. and J. H. Schwartz. 1999. Hominids and hybrids: The place of Neandertals in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96: 7117—19.

Teilhard de Chardin, P. 1934. Letter to Walter Granger (March 19, 1934). Granger-Teilhard Collection, Georgetown University Library, letter 1: 11.

-. 1935a. Letter to Walter Granger (March 27, 1935). Granger-Teilhard Collection, Georgetown University Library, letter 1: 17.

-. 1935b. Letter to Walter Granger (July 25, 1935). Granger-Teilhard Collection,

Georgetown University Library, letter 1: 13.

-. 1936. Letter to Walter Granger (February 18, 1936). Granger-Teilhard Collection, Georgetown University Library.

-. 1941. Early Man in China, No. 7. Institut de Geo-Biologie, Pekin.

Teilhard de Chardin, P. and W. Pei. 1932. The lithic industry of the Sinanthropus deposits in Choukoutien. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11: 317—58.

-. 1933. New discoveries in Choukoutien 1933—1934. Bulletin of the Geological

Society of China 13: 369-94.

Teilhard de Chardin, P. and C. C. Young. 1930. Preliminary report on the Choukoutien fossiliferous deposit. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 8: 173-202.

-. 1932. Fossil mammals from the Late Cenozoic of North China. Palaeontologia

Templeton, A. 2002. Out of Africa again and again. Nature 416: 45-51.

Tishkoff, S. A., R. Varkonyi, N. Cahinhinan, S. Abbes, G. Argyropoulos, G. Destro-Bisol, A. Drousiotou, B. Dangerfield, G. Lefranc, J. Loiselet, A. Piro, M. Stoneking, A. Tagarelli, G. Tagarelli, E. Touma, S. Williams, and A. Clark. 2001. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at human G6PD: Recent origin of alleles that confer malarial resistance. Science 293: 455-62.

Tobias, P. V. 1976. The life and times of Ralph von Koenigswald: paleontologist extraordinary. Journal of Human Evolution 5: 403-12.

-. 1991. Olduvai Gorge: Vol. 4. The Skulls, Endocasts, and Teeth of Homo habilis.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Tobias, P., W. Qian, and J. L. Cormack. 2000. Davidson Black and Raymond Dart: Asian-African parallels in palaeoanthropology. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, Supplement 19: 299-306.

Tobias, P., and G. H. R. von Koenigswald. 1964. A comparison between the Olduvai hominines and those of Java and some implications for hominid phylogeny. Nature 204: 515-18.

Tong, Y , et al. (editors). 1997. Evidence for Evolution—Essays in Honor of Prof. Chungchien Young on the Hundredth Anniversary of His Birth. China Ocean Press, Beijing.

Turner, C. 2002. When People Fled Hyenas: Oversized Hyenas May Have Delayed Human Arrival in North America (review by Lee Dye). http://abcnews.go.com/sec-tions/scitech/DyeHard/dyehard021120.html (accessed June, 2003).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2002. Deaths: leading causes for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports 50 (16): 1-86.

Villa, P. 1992. Cannibalism in Prehistoric Europe. Evolutionary Anthropology 3: 93-104.

Villa, P., C. Bouville, J. Courtin, D. Helmer, E. Mahieu, P Shipman, G. Belluomini, and M. Branca. 1986. Cannibalism in the Neolithic. Science 233: 431-37.

Voris, H. 2000. Maps of Pleistocene sea levels in Southeast Asia: shorelines, river systems and time durations. Journal of Biogeography 27: 1153-67.

Walker, A., M. R. Zimmerman, and R. E. Leakey. 1982. A possible case of hypervitami-nosis A in Homo erectus. Nature 296: 248-50.

Walker, A. and R. E. Leakey. 1993. The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Walker, A. and P. Shipman. 1996. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Wang, H., S. H. Ambrose, C. Liu, and L. Follmer. 1997. Paleosol stable isotope evidence for early hominid occupation of East Asian temperate environments. Quaternary

Research 48: 228-38.

Wang, Q., and P. V. Tobias. 2000. Review of the phylogenetic position of Chinese Homo erectus in light of midfacial morphology. Acta Anthropologia Sinica, Supplement 19: 23-33.

Washburn, S. L. 1946. The effect of facial paralysis on the growth of the skull of rat and rabbit. Anatomical Record 94: 163-68.

-. 1947. The relation of the temporal bone to the form of the skull. Anatomical

Record 99: 239-48.

-. 1951. The new physical anthropology. Transactions of the New York Academy of

Sciences 13: 298-304.

-. 1964. The origin of races: Weidenreich's opinion. American Anthropologist 66:


-. 1983. Evolution of a teacher. Annual Review of Anthropology 12: 1-24. Reprinted in The New Physical Anthropology: Science, Humanism, and Critical Reflection. Edited by Strum, Shirley, Donald G. Lindburg, and David Hamburg. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp. 215-27.

Washburn, S. L., and R. Moore. 1974. Ape into Man: A Study of Human Evolution. Little, Brown, Boston.

Washburn, S. L. and D. Wolffson (editors). 1949. The Shorter Anthropological Papers of Franz Weidenreich Published in the Period 1939—1948: A Memorial Volume. Viking Fund, New York.

Weaver, W. 1941a. Internal Report (June 6, 1941). Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

-. 1941b. Notes on Interview by "WW" with Dr. F. Weidenreich (Friday, June 6,

1941). Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

Weaver, W. and R. B. Fosdick. 1941. Notes on Interview by "WW" with "RBF" (Friday, June 6, 1941). Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, NY. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

Weidenreich, F. 1930. Ein neuer Pithecanthropus-Fund in China. Natur und Museum 60(12): 546-51.

--. 1932. Ueber pithecoide Merkmale bei Sinanthropus pekinensis und seine stammesgeschichte Beurteilung. Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgechichte 99: 212-52.

-. 1935. The Sinanthropus population of Choukoutien (Locality 1) with a preliminary report on new discoveries. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 14: 427-61.

-. 1936a. Observations on the form and the proportions of the endocranial casts of Sinanthropus pekinensis, other hominids, and the great apes: A comparative study of brain size. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 7(4): 1-50.

--. 1936b. The mandibles of Sinanthropus pekinensis: A comparative study.

Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 7(3): 1-162.

- 1937. The dentition of Sinanthropus pekinensis: A comparative odontography of the hominids. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 1: 1-181 (text); 1-121 (atlas).

-. 1938. The ramification of the middle meningeal artery in fossil hominids and its bearing upon phylogenetic problems. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 3: 1-16.

-. 1939a. Sinanthropus and his significance for the problem of human evolution.

Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 19: 1-17.

-. 1939b. The classification of fossil hominids and their relations to each other, with special reference to Sinanthropus pekinensis. Bulletin of the Geological Society of

China 19: 64-75. -. 1940. Man or ape? Natural History 45: 32-37.

-. 1941a. The brain and its role in the phylogenetic transformation of the skull.

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 31: 321-442.

-. 1941b. The extremity bones of Sinanthropus pekinensis. Palaeontologia Sinica,

-. 1944. Giant early man from Java and South China. Science 99: 479-82.

-. 1945. Giant early man from Java and south China. Anthropological Papers of the

American Museum of Natural History, 40(1): 1-134.

-. 1946. Apes, Giants, and Man. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

-. 1951. Morphology of Solo Man. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 205-90.

Weiner, S., Q. Q. Xu, P. Goldberg, J. Y. Liu, and O. Bar-Yosef. 1998. Evidence for the use of fire at Zhoukoudian, China. Science 281: 251-53.

White, T. D., B. Asfaw, D. DeGusta, H. Gilbert, G. D. Richards, G. Suwa, and F. C. Howell. 2003. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 423: 742-47.

White, T. 1992. Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Williamson, P. G. 1981. Paleontological documentation of speciation in Cenozoic mol-lusks from Turkana Basin. Nature 293: 437-43.

Wolpoff, M. 1980. Paleoanthropology. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

-. 1999. Paleoanthropology. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

-. 1984. Evolution in Homo erectus: The question of stasis. Paleobiology 10: 389406.

Wolpoff, M. and R. Caspari. 1997. Race and Human Evolution. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Wong, W (Weng, W.) 1927. The search for early man in China. Bulletin ofthe Geolological Society of China 6: 335-36.

Wong, W. H. (Weng, W. H.), and T. H. Yin. 1941. Letter to Dr. H. S. Houghton (January 10, 1941). Rockefeller Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

Woo, J., and T. K. Chao. 1959. New discovery of Sinanthropus mandible from Choukoutien. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 4: 17-26.

Wrangham, R., J. H. Jones, G. Laden, D. Pilbeam, and N. Conklin-Brittain. 1999. The raw and the stolen: Cooling and the ecology of human origins. Current Anthropology 5: 567-94.

Wright, S. 1940. Breeding structure of populations in relation to speciation. American Naturalist 74: 232-48.

-. 1968-1977. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. A Treatise. University of

Chicago Press, Chicago.

Wu, R. 1985. Chinese Homo erectus and recent work at Zhoukoudian. In Ancestors: The Hard Evidence. Edited by E. Delson. Liss, New York, pp. 206-14.

Wu, R., M. E. Ren, X. M. Xu, Z. G. Yang, C. K. Hu, Z. C. Kong, Y. Y. Xie, and S. S. Zhao (editors). 1985. Multi-disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian. Science Press, Beijing.

Wu, R. and S. Lin. 1983. Peking Man. Scientific American 248: 86-94.

Wu, R. and J. W. Olsen (editors). 1985. Paleoanthropology and Palaeolithic Archaeology in the People's Republic of China. Academic Press, Orlando, Fla.

Wu, X. 1989. Early Homo sapiens in China. In Early Humankind in China. Edited by X. Wu and S. Shang, Science Press, Beijing.

Wu, X., and F. E. Poirier. 1995. Human Evolution in China: A Metric Description of the Fossils and a Review of the Sites. Oxford University Press, New York.

Wynn, T. 1993. Two developments in the mind of Homo erectus. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12: 299-322.

Xie, Y. 1985. The sedimentary environment of the Peking Man period. In Multi-disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian. Edited by R. Wu, M. E. Ren, X. M. Xu, Z. G. Yang, C. K. Hu, Z. C. Kong, Y. Y. Xie, and S. S. Zhao. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 185-215.

Yuan, S. X., T. M. Chen, S. J. Gao, and Y. Q. Hu. 1991. Study on uranium series dating of fossil bones from Zhoukoudian. Acta Anthropologica Sinica 10: 189-93.

Zdansky, O. 1927. Preliminary notice on two teeth of a hominid from a cave in Chihli (China). Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 5: 281-84.

-. 1928. Die Säugetiere der Quatärfauna von Choukoutien. Palaeontologia Sinica,

Zhao, S., M. Xia, and S. Wan. 1980. Uranium-series dating of Peking Man [In Chinese]. Kexue Tong Bao 25: 447.

Zhao, S. 1985. Uranium-series dating of Peking Man site. In Multi-disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian. Edited by R. Wu, M. E. Ren, X. M. Xu, Z. G. Yang, C. K. Hu, Z. C. Kong, Y. Y. Xie, and S. S. Zhao. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 246-55.

Zhou, C., Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and Q. Huang. 2000. Climatic cycles investigated by sediment analysis in Peking Man's cave, Zhoukoudian, China. Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 101-9.

Zhou, M., and C. K. Ho. 1990. History of the dating of Homo erectus at Zhoukoudian.

Geological Society of America Special Paper 242: 69-74.

Zhu, R., Y. X. Pan, B. Guo, C. D. Shi, Z. T. Guo, B. Y. Yuan, Y. M. Hou, W. W. Huang, K. A. Hoffman, R. Potts, and C. L. Deng. 2001. Earliest presence of humans in northeast Asia. Nature 413: 413-17.

Zuckerkandl, E. and L. Pauling. 1965. Molecules as documents of evolutionary history.

Journal of Theoretical Biology 8(2): 357-66.

This page intentionally left blank

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Power Of Charisma

The Power Of Charisma

You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment