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Plate 1: (top) A reconstruction of Homo erectus from Longgushan by Ian Tattersall and Gary Sawyer. (bottom) Stone tools from Locality 1 fashioned by Homo erectus.

Plate 2: View of the western wall of the excavation at Locality 1 from Pigeon Hall Cave.

Plate 3: A reconstructed three-dimensional map of the Locality 1 excavation, showing the spatial extent and levels of all Homo erectus skulls.

Plate 4: (top) The Pleistocene cave hyena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris, was the primary denizen of the cave at Dragon Bone Hill. (middle) Homo erectus occupied Longgushan, probably near well-lit cave entrances, in the daylight hours. (bottom) As night fell, when the hominids had scavenged what they could, they left the cave to the hyenas.

Plate 5: (top) Bite marks on hominid skulls show that hyenas crunched away the face first, then gnawed on the calvaria to crack open the brain case. (middle row, left) Some paired puncture marks on Homo erectus crania match the canines of other carnivores. (middle row, middle) The enlarged hole at the base of the skull was the handiwork of hyenas. (middle row, right) A hominid skull fragment shows a hyena bite mark. (bottom) Hominid thighbone shows damage that matches bones regurgitated by African hyenas.

Plate 6: The traditional interpretation of Zhoukoudian—the cave home of Peking Man.

Plate 7: The new interpretation—Longgushan as fossil hyena den.

Plate 8: A reconstruction in stages of Homo erectus from Java by Japanese anthropologist Professor Hisao Baba based on the 1.25-million-year-old skull from Sangiran. Final reconstruction ofJavan Homo erectus with volcanos in the background by artist Jay Matternes.

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