List of Illustrations

Page 2: (top) Map of Dragon Bone Hill ("Longgushan") and Beijing. (middle) Map of Longgushan and the town of Zhoukoudian. (bottom) A plan view of Locality 1 with a history of the excavations.

Page 5: Swedish geologist J. Gunnar Andersson, who confirmed the presence of fossil bones near Zhoukoudian in 1918.

Page 11: The teeth of "Peking Man" found by Otto Zdansky at Longgushan between 1921 and 1923.

Page 15: Davidson Black at his laboratory workbench with Sinanthropus skulls.

Page 20: The cover page of Davidson Black's 1927 paper announcing the new species Sinanthropus pekinensis.

Page 23: The research team in the village of Zhoukoudian in 1929.

Page 28: Franz Weidenreich at Dragon Bone Hill after the recovery of Skull X.

Page 30: View of the excavation in the spring of 1935.

Page 31: (top) Chief excavator Lanpo Jia in Locality 1 cleaning Skull XII in November 1936. (bottom) Side view of Skull XII.

Page 34: View of the excavation on June 15, 1937.

Page 37: German paleoanthropologist Ralph von Koenigswald (center) in 1938 with Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (left) and Helmut de Terra (right) in Java.

Page 41: The front gate of Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, in the late 1930s.

Page 44: Chief excavator Lanpo Jia at Longgushan on November 2, 1936.

Page 52: Franz Weidenreich at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

Page 56: Anatomy of the Homo erectus skull as reconstructed by Franz Weidenreich.

Page 64: Homo erectus molar compared to Gigantopithecus molar.

Page 66: Weidenreich's trellis of multiregional evolution in the hominid family proposed in 1945.

Page 69: Olduvai Hominid 9, a Homo erectus skullcap from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

Page 75: Skull III, showing the pronounced cranial thickness of the skull of Homo erectus.

Page 78: Cranial capacity of Homo erectus compared with other hominids and apes.

Page 79: The Homo erectus skull with reconstructed chewing muscles.

Page 82: Relative cranial thicknesses of modern Chinese Homo sapiens (top) and Zhoukoudian Homo erectus (bottom).

Page 87: (top) Healed depressed skull fracture in a contemporary Homo sapiens (United States) compared with Homo erectus Skull X (middle and bottom).

Page 91: Longgushan workers drilling a hole for setting explosive charges in 1927.

Page 92: Excavation grid marked with white paint near the end of the field season, November 1935.

Page 93: (top) Excavation of Skulls X, XI, and XII in Locus L in 1936. (bottom) Excavation plan view of Locus L.

Page 94: Computer-generated three-dimensional map of Locality 1.

Page 96: Quartz stone tools from Longgushan Locality 1.

Page 96: A large chopping tool made from stream-rounded quartz cobble discovered at Longgushan Locality 1.

Page 99: Archaeologist Henri Breuil (center) and Teilhard de Chardin (left) at Dragon Bone Hill in 1935-

Page 110: (top) Geological sketch of Dragon Bone Hill localities and sediments by Teilhard de Chardin. (bottom) View of Dragon Bone Hill from the north-

Page 111: Map of the original localities established on Dragon Bone Hill.

Page 113: Teilhard de Chardin's concept of past climate in northern China.

Page 117: Global paleomagnetic stratigraphy for the past 2.5 million years.

Page 118: Paleoclimatic curves for the Pleistocene, constructed by Chunlin Zhou and colleagues.

Page 121: Homo erectus from Nariokotome, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya, nicknamed "Turkana Boy."

Page 126: Speech areas of the brain of Homo sapiens.

Page 131: (top) A close-up view of the sediments of Layer 10 with evidence of fire. (bottom) Burned mammal bone derived from Layer 10 collected by Steve "Weiner

Page 133: Skull of the giant cave hyena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris, excavated from Longgushan.

Page 134: (top, middle) A probable hyaenid bite mark on the right brow-ridge of Longgushan Homo erectus Skull V. (bottom) Scanning electron micrograph of an impression of the right browridge of Skull V.

Page 136: (top) Scanning electron photomicrograph of prehistoric cut marks made by a stone tool on mammal bone from the site of Nihewan in northern China. (bottom) Bite mark made by a carnivore tooth on another mammal bone from the site of Nihewan.

Page 137: (top) Bite marks made by carnivores on bones from Locality 1 at Dragon Bone Hill. (bottom) Stone-tool cut marks made by Homo erectus on a mammal bone from Locality 1.

Page 139: Scanning electron photomicrograph of a carnivore puncture mark and a Homo erectus stone-tool cut mark on the same bone from Locality 1.

Page 140: Lucille Swan sculpting "Nellie," a soft-part reconstruction of Homo erectus, under the scientific direction of Franz Weidenreich.

Page 145: Javan Homo erectus skull, Sangiran 17.

Page 146: Recently discovered fossil skull (left) of Homo erectus from the site of Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia, compared with Homo habilis skull ER 1813 (right) from east of Lake Turkana, Kenya.

Page 150: Clinal replacement as a model of human evolution, redrawn from a diagram by population geneticist Sewall Wright.

Page 154: (right) Map of Pleistocene "Sunda" illustrating the probable migration route of Homo erectus and other terrestrial animals into island Southeast Asia. (left) Map of the inundated Sunda Shelf in modern times.

Page 158: (top) The oxygen isotope paleotemperature record for the past 1.5 million years. (2nd from top) Relative strengths of the wet, summer monsoons in northern China. (3rd from top) Relative strengths of the cold, dry, winter monsoons in northern China. (bottom) History of windblown glacial dust ("loess") in northern China. All from the research of D. Heslop and colleagues.

Page 163: Map of major hominid fossil sites dating to between one hundred thousand and three million years ago.

Page 165: A view of the evolutionary, geographic, and temporal relationships of Homo erectus, following Philip Rightmire.

Page 177: (top) The Upper Cave at Longgushan. (bottom) Skull of Homo sapiens (no. 101) from the Upper Cave.

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