Dr. Wong Write To Weidenreich

Chapter 1 The Bones of Dragon Hill

1. "Hominid" refers to a member of the zoological family Hominidae, which in our usage includes humans and their bipedal predecessors. Some authors use the term to refer to apes and humans together, but we prefer the established term "hominoid" for this taxonomic grouping.

2. Schlosser, M. 1903. Die fossilen Säugethiere Chinas. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften II, 150: 22.

3. Osborn, H. F. 1924. American Men of the Dragon Bones. Natural History, 24(3): 350-65.

4. Ingersoll, E. 1928. Dragons and Dragon Lore. Payson & Clarke, New York.

5. Reader, J. 1981. Missing Links, the Hunt for Earliest Man. Little, Brown, Boston.

6. Andersson, J. G. 1925. Archaeological research in Kansu. Chinese Geological Survey, Series A, No. 5.

7. Andersson, J. G. 1928. The Dragon and Foreign Devils. Little, Brown, Boston.

8. Andersson, J. G. 1934. Children of the Yellow Earth: Studies in Prehistoric China. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company, London.

11. Zdansky, O. 1928. Die Saeugetiere der Quataerfauna von Choukoutien. Palaeon-tologia Sinica, Series C, 5: 1-146.

18. Hood, D. 1964. Davidson Black, A Biography. University ofToronto Press, Toronto.

21. Black, D. 1928. A study of Kansu and Honan Aeneolithic skulls and specimens from Later Kansu prehistoric sites in comparison with North China and other recent crania. I. On measurement and identification. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series D, 6(1): 1-83.

22. Black, D. 1926. Tertiary man in Asia: The Choukoutien discovery. Nature 118: 733-34.

25. Andersson (1934).

27. Black, D. 1927. The lower molar hominid tooth from the Chou Kou Tien deposit. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series D, 7(1): 1-28.

28. Dart, R. A. 1925. Australopithecus africanus, the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115: 195-99.

29. Andersson (1934).

32. Spencer, F. 1990. Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery. Oxford University Press, New York.

33. Pei, W. 1929. An account of the discovery of an adult Sinanthropus skull in the Choukoutien cave deposit. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 8: 203-5.

34. Black, D. 1931a. On the adolescent skull of Sinanthropuspekinensis in comparison with an adult skull of the same species and with other hominid skulls, recent and fossil. Palaeontologia Sinica, Series D, 7(2): 1-144.

36. Teilhard de Chardin, P. 1934. Letter to Walter Granger (March 19, 1934). Granger-Teilhard Collection, Georgetown University Library, letter 1: 11.

37. Teilhard de Chardin (1934).

38. Weidenreich was reportedly not religious and did not consider himself Jewish, but German "racial" policy held that anyone with one Jewish grandparent was classified as Jewish (Wolpoff, M., and R. Caspari. 1997. Race and Human Evolution. Simon & Schuster, New York.).

39. Gustav Schwalbe had studied under Johannes Müller, the great anatomist and embryologist, and was a contemporary of Rudolf Virchow. Schwalbe was a strong advocate of Darwinian human evolution and thus opposed Virchow's viewpoint. He was the leading contemporary expert on Neandertal anatomy and considered Neandertals ancestral to modern humans. Weidenreich was working in Schwalbe's lab when he was studying and describing Eugene Dubois's Pithecanthropus fossil skull from Java (Wolpoff and Caspari, 1997).

40. Gregory, W. K. 1949. Franz Weidenreich, 1873-1948. American Anthropologist 51: 85-90.

42. Jia, L. (editor). 2000. Chronicle of Zhoukoudian (1927—1937). Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers, Shanghai.

43. Teilhard de Chardin, P. 1935a. Letter to Walter Granger (March 27, 1935). Granger-Teilhard Collection, Georgetown University Library, letter 1: 17.

44. Teilhard de Chardin, P. 1935b. Letter to Walter Granger (July 25, 1935). Granger-Teilhard Collection, Georgetown University Library, letter 1: 13.

45. Jia (2000); see also Jia, L., and W. Huang. 1990. The Story of Peking Man, from Archaeology to Mystery. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

46. Teilhard de Chardin, P. 1936. Letter to Walter Granger (February 18, 1936). Granger-Teilhard Collection, Georgetown University Library.

47. Although the Cenozoic Research Laboratory at Peking Union Medical College ceased to exist administratively in 1941, the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which today undertakes and administers Chinese paleoanthropological research, was founded in 1949 to continue the work of the Cenozoic Research Laboratory. Dr. Zhongjian Yang, the longtime colleague and friend of Davidson Black and Teilhard de Chardin, became its first director.

48. In an internal report written by Dr. Warren Weaver, then director of the natural sciences of the Rockefeller Foundation (Weaver, W. 1941a. Internal Report (Friday, June 6, 1941), Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323), he states: "there has been a major difference of opinion on policy between W[eidenreich] and Houghton. W[eidenreich] did not think it was at all necessary for him to leave China and obviously did so reluctantly and under definite orders from H[oughton]."

49. In a letter, dated April 10, 1941, to Mr. Edwin Lobenstine, chairman of the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation, Dr. Henry S. Houghton, president of Peking Union Medical College, writes: "Some weeks ago Dr. Weidenreich raised the question with me as to whether or not it might be possible or practicable, with the consent of the officials of the National Geological Survey and of the Chinese National Government, to remove the human material and artefacts to some one of the great museums in the United States, there to be held in custody for the duration of the war. After talking the matter over with him and with others interested, including the First Secretary of the Embassy, I came to the conclusion that it would not be in order to do so." (Houghton, H. S. 1941. Letter to Edwin Lobenstine [April 10, 1941]. Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323).

Chapter 2 The Dragon Reclaims Its Own

4. Gibney, F. (editor) 1995. Senso, The Japanese Remember the Pacific War. M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY.

7. Li, M. S., and N. Yue. 2000. Search for Peking Man [In Chinese]. Hua Xia Publishers, Beijing.

8. Weaver, W. 1941b. Notes on Interview by "WW" with Dr. F. Weidenreich (Friday, June 6, 1941). Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

9. Ryuzo Torii (1870—1953) has been termed the "founding father of Japanese anthropology" and was active in archaeology, physical anthropology, and ethnography of

Asia. He was a contemporary of German-American anthropologist Franz Boas and shared with him a broad definition of the field.

10. Yenching University, the forerunner to Beijing University, was founded in 1916 as a missionary institution by the Presbyterian and Methodist churches. In 1952 it became Beijing University.

11. Weidenreich had been without official German citizenship since November 1935, when Nazi-controlled Germany passed the "Reich Citizenship Law" ["Reichsburger-gesetz"], which made German citizenship dependent upon German "blood," i.e., no descent from "non-Aryan" grandparents (see Proctor, R. 1988. From Anthropologie to Rassenkunde in the German anthropological tradition. In Bones, Bodies, Behavior. Essays on Biological Anthropology. History of Anthropology. Vol. 5. Edited by G. W. Stocking, pp. 138-79, University ofWisconsin Press, Madison, p. 160.). Weidenreich had applied for American citizenship but had "only his first papers" (noted in interview transcript by Warren Weaver, see note 8 above).

13. Wong, W. H. (Weng, W. H.), and T. H. Yin. 1941. Letter to Dr. H. S. Houghton (January 10, 1941). Rockefeller Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

14. Houghton, H. S. 1941. Letter to Edwin Lobenstine (April 10, 1941). Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

16. Houghton (1941).

18. See note 48 in chap. 1. In his letter of April 10, 1941, Houghton writes "Dr. Weidenreich, as you know, is proceeding at once to New York and will take with him this letter."

19. Weidenreich considered himself "stateless."

21. Weaver, W., and R. B. Fosdick. 1941. Notes on Interview by "WW" with "RBF" (Friday, June 6, 1941). Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323.

26. Shapiro, H. 1974. Peking Man: The Discovery, Disappearance and Mystery of a Priceless Scientific Treasure. Simon & Schuster, New York.

28. Beeman, C. L. 1959. Peking Man: Letters. Science 130: 416.

29. Lin, J. 1999. Mystery of the Missing Ancient Skulls. Detroit Free Press, May 17, 1999 (http://www.100megsfree4.com/farshores/skulls.htm).

31. Boaz, N. T. 2002a. Personal communication from Martin Taschdjian, son of Claire Taschdjian, by telephone (December 12, 2002).

33. Janus, C., and W. Brashler. 1975. The Search for Peking Man. Macmillan, New York.

34. Boaz, N. T. 2002b. Personal communication from Christopher Janus by telephone (November 2002).

35. Interview with Mr. James Stewart-Gordon (Rasky, H. [editor] 1977. The Peking Man Mystery. Canadian Broadcasting Company, Toronto).

36. Hu, C. 1977. Letter to Lanpo Jia (March 4, 1977), reprinted in The Story of Peking Man, from Archaeology to Mystery. Edited by L. Jia and W. Huang. 1990. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 160-61.

37. Interview with Wenzhong Pei, Da Gong Bao newspaper, Beijing, March 1950, reprinted in The Story of Peking Man, from Archaeology to Mystery. Edited by L. Jia and W. Huang. 1990. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 171-72.

39. Hasebe, K. 1915. Notes on the local customs of the Marshall Islands. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo 30(7): 278-79.

40. Fortuyn, A. B. D. 1942. Excerpt from report of Dr. Fortuyn on Department of Anatomy, P.U.M.C.—Part Two, dated December 5, 1941, with cover memorandum from "AMP" [Agnes M. Pearce, Secretary, China Medical Board, Inc.] (Rockefeller Archives, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. Record Group 1.1, Series 601D, Box 39, Folder 323).

46. Interview with Dr. Lucian W. Pye (Rasky, 1977).

47. Taschdjian, C. 1977. The Peking Man Is Missing. Harper & Row, New York, p. 119.

49. Tobias, P., W. Qian, and J. L. Cormack. 2000. Davidson Black and Raymond Dart: Asian-African parallels in paleoanthropology. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, Supplement 19, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing.

Chapter 3 Giants and Genes: Changing Views of Peking Man's Evolutionary Significance

2. Modern human cranial capacity is an average of about 1,350 cubic centimeters, ranging as high as 1,800 cc and as low as 1,000 cc. The measured cranial capacities of the Longgushan hominids range between 915 cc and 1,225 cc.

3. Weidenreich, F. 1939a. Sinanthropus and his significance for the problem of human evolution. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 19: 1—17.

5. Hrdlicka, A. 1920. Shovel-shaped teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

6. Smith, G. E. 1932. The discovery of primitive man in China. In Smithsonian Report for 1931. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 531-47.

7. Weidenreich, F. 1930. Ein neuer Pithecanthropus - Fund in China. Natur und Museum 60 (12): 546-51; see also chapter 1, note 39.

8. Ralph von Koenigswald was nominated for the position at the Dutch Geological Survey by Ferdinand Broili, one of his professors at Munich. Interestingly, Broili had been the mentor of Zhongjian Yang [C. C. Young], later one of the codirectors of the Longgushan excavations, who received his doctorate from Munich in 1927, one year before von Koenigswald. Although the two men must have been aware of, or even known, each other, there is no evidence of their having met or corresponded after they left Munich.

9. Koenigswald, G. H. R. von 1931a. Sinanthropus, Pithecanthropus en de ouderdom van de Trinil-Lagen. Mijningenieur 1931: 198—202.

10. Koenigswald, G. H. R. von 1931b. Fossilen uit Chineesche apotheen in West-Java. Mijningenier 1931: 189—93; Koenigswald, G. H. R. von 1932. Versteinerungen als Azneimittel bei den Chinesen auf Java. Natur und Museum 62 (9): 292-95.

11. Koenigswald, G. H. R. von 1936. Erste Mittelung über einen fossilen Hominiden aus dem Altpleistozän Ostjavas. Natur und Museum 62: 292-95; Koenigswald, G. H. R. von 1937. Ein Underkieferfragment des Pithecanthropus aus dem Trinil-schichten Mittlejavas. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wetenschappen 40: 883-93.

12. Koenigswald, G. H. R. von 1938. Ein neuer Pithecanthropus-Schädel. Koninkl. Nederl. Akademie van Wetenschappen 42: 185-92.

13. Weidenreich, F. 1940. Man or Ape? Natural History 45: 32-37.

14. Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald was born in Berlin on November 13, 1902, and was not "Dutch" as sometimes averred (e.g., Walker, A., and P. Shipman. 1996. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. Alfred A. Knopf, New York). He went to gymnasium (secondary school) at Heppenheim an der Bergstrasse and studied at university at Berlin, Tübingen, Cologne, and Munich (where he received his doctorate in 1928). Between 1947 and 1968 von Koenigswald was indeed professor of paleontology at the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht in the Netherlands, but then returned to Germany to the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt, where he remained until his death in 1982.

15. Boaz, N. T. 1975. Interview with G. H. R. von Koenigswald. Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt.

16. Koenigswald, G. H. R. von, and F. Weidenreich. 1938. Discovery of an additional Pithecanthropus skull. Nature 142: 715.

17. Weidenreich, F. 1939b. The classification of fossil hominids and their relations to each other, with special reference to Sinanthropus pekinensis. Bulletin of the Geologi-calSociety of China 19: 64-75.

18. Koenigswald, G. H. R. von, and F. Weidenreich. 1939. The relationship between Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus. Nature 144: 926-29.

19. Army officer Walter Fairservis had studied at Columbia University with physical anthropologist Dr. Harry Shapiro.

20. Weidenreich, F. 1943. The skull of Sinanthropuspekinensis: A comparative study on a primitive hominid skull. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 10: 1-485.

21. Weidenreich, F. 1941a. The Brain and Its Role in the Phylogenetic Transformation of the Skull. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

23. Ciochon, R., J. Olsen, and J. James. 1990. Other Origins: The Search for the Giant Ape in Human Prehistory. Bantam, Doubleday, New York.

24. "Multiregionalism" is a term coined by paleoanthropologist Milford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan (Wolpoff, M. 1999. Paleoanthropology. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York; see also Hawks, J., K. Hunley, S. Lee, and M. Wolpoff. 2000. Population bottlenecks and Pleistocene human evolution. Molecular Biological Evolution 17: 2-22).

25. Washburn, S. L., and D. Wolffson (editors). 1949. The Shorter Anthropological Papers of Franz Weidenreich Published in the Period 1939—1948: A Memorial Volume. The Viking Fund, New York.

26. Boaz, N. T. 1981. History ofAmerican paleoanthropological research on early Homi-nidae, 1925-1980. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 56: 397-406.

27. Rightmire, G. P 1990. The Evolution of Homo erectus: Comparative Anatomical Studies of an Extinct Human Species. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

28. Isaac, G. L. 1975. Sorting out the muddle in the middle: An anthropologist's postconference appraisal. In After the Australopithecine. Edited by K. Butzer and G. L. Isaac, Mouton, The Hague, pp. 875-87.

29. Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press, New York.

30. Washburn, S. L. 1983. Evolution of a teacher. Annual Review of Anthropology 12: 124. Reprinted in The New Physical Anthropology: Science, Humanism, and Critical Reflection. Edited by Shirley Strum, Donald G. Lindburg, and David Hamburg. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp. 215-27.

31. Washburn, S. L. 1946. The effect of facial paralysis on the growth of the skull of rat and rabbit. Anatomical Record 94: 163-68; Washburn, S. L. 1947. The relation of the temporal bone to the form of the skull. Anatomical Record 99: 239-48.

32. Weidenreich (1941a).

33. Weidenreich, F. 1946. Apes, Giants, andMan. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 89.

34. Dobzhansky, T. 1942. Races and methods of their study. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 4: 115-33.

36. Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and the classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 85: 1-350.

37. Washburn, S. 1951. The new physical anthropology. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 13: 298-304.

38. Washburn, S. 1964. The origin of races: Weidenreich's opinion. American Anthropologist 66: 1165-67.

Chapter 4 The Third Function: A Hypothesis on the Mysterious Skull of Peking Man

1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2002. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports 50(16): 1-86.

2. It is of interest that Weidenreich published several papers on African australopith-ecines and their significance to human evolution early in his career. His overall opinion, however, especially after he took over the interpretive role for Longgushan

Homo erectus, was that australopithecines were clearly on the ape side of the human-ape evolutionary divide. In his 1943 monograph, there is a striking absence of any mention of Australopithecus. Weidenreich only briefly discusses the African late Pleistocene Homo sapiens Olduvai Hominid 1 and "'Africanthropus" fossils from Laetoli.

3. Brown, P 1994. Cranial vault thickness in Asian Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 17: 33-46.

4. Taplin, A. 1874. The Narrinyeri: An Account of the Tribes of South Australian Aborigines Inhabiting the Country Around the Lakes Alexandrina, Albert, and Coorong, and the Lower Part of the River Murray. E. S. Wigg & Son, Adelaide.

6. An early record of thickened cranial bones due to malaria in Homo sapiens was discovered at the Ishango archaeological site, Democratic Republic of Congo (Boaz, N. T., P. Pavlakis, and A. S. Brooks. 1990. Late Pleistocene-Holocene human remains from the Upper Semliki, Zaire. In Evolution of Environments andHominidae in the African Western Rift Valley. Edited by N. T. Boaz. Virginia Museum of Natural History, Memoir No. 1, pp. 3-14).

7. Bartsiokas, A. 2002. Hominid cranial bone structure: A histological study of Omo 1 specimens from Ethiopia using different microscopic techniques. Anatomical Record 267: 52-59.

8. LeCount, E. R., and C. W. Apfelbach. 1920. Pathologic anatomy of traumatic fractures of the cranial bones and concomitant brain injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association 74: 501-11.

9. Boaz, N. T. 1999. Personal observation. NTB, Bosnia Project, Physicians for Human Rights.

10. Le Fort, R. 1901. Etude experimentale sur les fractures de la machoire supérieure. Revue de Chirurgie. 23: 201-10.

11. Weidenreich, F. 1951. Morphology of Solo Man. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 205-90.

12. Hawks, J. 2003. The browridge: Pleistocene body armor. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 36: 112.

13. Weidenreich, F. 1938. The ramification of the middle meningeal artery in fossil hominids and its bearing upon phylogenetic problems. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 3: 1-16.

14. Weidenreich (1943).

15. Rogers, L. F. 1992. Radiology of Skeletal Trauma. Churchill Livingstone, New York.

16. Falk, D. 1992. Braindance. Henry Holt & Company, New York.

Chapter 5 The Adaptive Behavior of the Not-Quite-Human

1. Black, D. 1930. On an adolescent skull of Sinanthropus pekinensis in comparison with an adult skull of the same species and with other hominid skulls, recent and fossil. Palaeontologia Sinica Series D, 7, p. 208 [quoted by Pei, W., and S. Zhang. 1985. A Study of the Lithic Artifacts of Sinanthropus. Science Press, Beijing, p. 263].

2. Pei, W., and S. Zhang. 1985. A Study of the Lithic Artifacts of Sinanthropus. Beijing: Science Press, p. 263.

4. Pei, W. 1931a. Notice of the discovery of quartz and other stone artifacts in the Lower Pleistocene hominid-bearing sediments of the Choukoutien cave deposit. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11: 109—46.

5. Teilhard de Chardin, P., and W. Pei. 1932. The lithic industry of the Sinanthropus deposits in Choukoutien. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11: 317—58.

6. Teilhard de Chardin, P 1941. Early Man in China, No. 7. Institut de Géo-Biologie, Pékin.

8. Breuil, H. 1939. Bone and Antler Industry of the Choukoutien Sinanthropus Site. Palaeontologia Sinica 117: 1—93.

9. Breuil's idea of bone, tooth, and antler tools as precursors to stone tools formed the basis of Raymond Dart's later but much more widely known "osteodontokeratic" culture, which he proposed for the australopithecines at Makapansgat, South Africa, in the late 1930s. Taphonomic studies carried out primarily by C. K. Brain (Brain, C. 1981. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago) showed that these presumed bone tools were in fact remains of carnivore, especially hyaenid, modification.

13. Binford, L. R., and C. K. Ho. 1985. Taphonomy at a distance: Zhoukoudian, "the cave home of Beijing man?" Current Anthropology 26: 413-42; Binford, L. R., and N. M. Stone. 1986. Zhoukoudian: A closer look. Current Anthropology 27: 453-75.

14. Black, D. 1931b. Evidences of the use of fire by Sinanthropus. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11: 107-98.

15. Breuil, H. 1931. Le feu et l'industrie lithique et osseuse à Choukoutien. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11: 147-54.

16. Goldberg, P., S. Weiner, O. Bar-Yosef, Q. Wu, and J. Liu. 2001. Site-formation processes at Zhoukoudian, China. Journal of Human Evolution 41: 483-530.

17. Weiner, S., Q. Q. Xu, P. Goldberg, J. Y. Liu, and O. Bar-Yosef. 1998. Evidence for the use of fire at Zhoukoudian, China. Science 281: 251-53.

18. Pope, G. G. 1993. Ancient Asia's cutting edge. Natural History 5: 55-59.

19. Movius, H. L. 1969. Lower Paleolithic archaeology in southern Asia and the Far East. In Studies in Physical Anthropology: Early Man in the Far East. Edited by W. W Howells, pp. 17-77. Anthropological Publications, The Netherlands.

20. Schick, K. D., N. S. Toth, W. Qi, J. D. Clark, and D. Etler. 1991. Archaeological perspectives in the Nihewan Basin, China. Journal of Human Evolution 27: 13-26.

21. Hopwood, D. E. 2003a. Behavioural differences in the early to mid-Pleistocene: Were African and Chinese Homo erectus really that different? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supp 36: 117-18.

22. Clark, J. D., and J. W. K. Harris. 1986. Fire and its roles in early hominid lifeways. African Archaeological Review 3: 3-29.

23. Rowlett, R. 1999. Did the use of fire for cooking lead to a diet change that resulted in the expansion of brain size in Homo erectus from that of Australopithecus africanus? Science 283: 2005.

24. See Howell, F. C. 1965. Early Man. Time-Life, New York.

25. Hoberg, E., N. L. Alkire, A. de Queiroz, and A. Jones. 2001. Out ofAfrica: Origins of the Taenia tapeworms in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 268(1469): 781-87.

26. Milius, S. 2001. Tapeworms tell tales of deeper human past. Science News 159: 21516.

Chapter 6 The Times and Climes of Homo erectus

1. Teilhard de Chardin (1941).

2. Zhao, S., et al. 1985. Uranium-series dating of Peking Man site. In Multi-Disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian. Edited by R. Wu et al. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 246-55.

3. Yuan, S. X., T. M. Chen, S. J. Gao, and Y. Q. Hu. 1991. Study on uranium series dating of fossil bones from Zhoukoudian. Acta Anthropologica Sinica 10: 189-93.

4. Shen, G., and L. Jin. 1993. Restudy of the upper age limit of Beijing man site. International Journal of Anthropology 8: 95-98.

5. Qian, F., J. Zhang, and J. Li. 1980. Magnetostratigraphic study of the cave deposit containing fossil Peking Man at Zhoukoudian [In Chinese]. Kexue Tong Bao 25: 359.

6. Zhou, C., Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and Q. Huang. 2000. Climatic cycles investigated by sediment analysis in Peking Man's cave, Zhoukoudian, China. Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 101-9.

9. Xie, Y., et al. 1985. The sedimentary environment of the Peking Man period. In Multi-Disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian. Edited by R. Wu et al. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 185-215.

10. Turner, C. 2003. When people fled hyenas: Oversized hyenas may have delayed human arrival in North America (review by Lee Dye) http://abcnews.go.com/sec-tions/scitech/DyeHard/dyehard021120.html (accessed June, 2003).

11. Spencer, L. M. 1997. Dietary adaptations of Plio-Pleistocene Bovidae: Implications for hominid habitat use. Journal of Human Evolution 32: 201-28.

12. Boaz, N. T. 1979. Early hominid population densities: New estimates. Science 206: 592-95; Aiello, L. C., and J. Wells. 2002. Energetics and the evolution of the genus Homo. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 323-38.

13. Walker, A., and R. E. Leakey. 1993. TheNariokotomeHomo erectus Skeleton. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

14. Isbell, L. A., J. D. Pruetz, M. Lewis, and T. P. Young. 1998. Locomotor activity differences between sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebuspatas) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecusaethiops): Implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in Homo. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 105: 199-207.

15. Chaney, R. 1935. The food of "Peking Man." Carnegie Inst. Washington, News Serv. B, 3 (25): 198-202.

Chapter 7 The Nature of Humanness at Longgushan: Brain, Language, Fire, and Cannibalism

1. Microcephaly, defined statistically and clinically as a cranial capacity two standard deviations below the population mean (Opitz, J. M., and M. C. Holt. 1990. Microcephaly: General considerations and aids to nosology. Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 10(2): 175—204), may have diverse causes and is associated with many clinically recognized syndromes. It is frequently associated with poor development of the brain, congenital malformations, and mental retardation, and may be inherited on the X-chromosome or autosomally, as either a dominant or recessive trait (see Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.)

2. Keith, A. 1927. The brain of Anatole France. British Medical Journal 2: 1048-49.

3. Black, D., P. Teilhard de Chardin, C. C. Young, and W. C. Pei. 1933. Fossil man in China: The Choukoutien cave deposits with a synopsis of our present knowledge of the late Cenozoic in China. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of China, Beijing, Series A, No. 11.

4. Weidenreich, F. 1936a. Observations on the form and the proportions of the en-docranial casts of Sinanthropus pekinensis, other hominids, and the great apes: A comparative study of brain size. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, 7 (4): 1-50.

5. Laitman, J., and R. C. Heimbuch. 1982. The basicranium of Plio-Pleistocene hominids as an indicator of their upper respiratory systems. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 59: 323-43.

6. Kay, R., M. Cartmill, and M. Balow. 1998. The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95:


7. DeGusta, D., W. H. Gilbert, and S. P. Turner. 1998. Hypoglossal canal size and hominid speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96: 1800-4.

8. MacLarnon, A. 1993. The vertebral canal. In The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton. Edited by A. Walker and R. Leakey. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 359-90.

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10. Klein, R. G., and B. Edgar. 2002. The Dawn ofHuman Culture. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

11. Boesch, C., and H. Boesch. 1990. Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica 54: 86-99.

12. Breuil, H. 1939. Bone and antler industry of the Choukoutien Sinanthropus site. Palaeontologia Sinica New Series D, 6: 1-93.

13. Boaz, N. T., R. L. Ciochon, Q. Xu, and J. Liu. 2000. Large mammalian carnivores as a taphonomic factor in the bone accumulation at Zhoukoudian. Acta Anthropological Sinica, Supplement 19: 224-34.

14. Villa, P. 1992. Cannibalism in Prehistoric Europe. Evolutionary Anthropology 3: 93104; Villa, P., C. Bouville, J. Courtin, D. Helmer, E. Mahieu, P. Shipman, G. Belluomini, and M. Branca. 1986. Cannibalism in the Neolithic. Science 233: 43137; White, T. 1992. Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

15. Asfaw, B., T. D. White, O. Lovejoy, B. Latimer, S. Simpson, and G. Suwa. 1999. Australopithecus garhi: A new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 284: 629-35.

16. Fernandez, Y., J. C. Diez, I. Caceres, and J. Rosell. 1999. Human cannibalism in the early Pleistocene of Europe (Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerco, Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 37: 591-622.

17. "Wir können daher wohl mit Recht als eine besondere (21ste) Stufe unserer menschlichen Ahnenreihe den sprachlosen Menschen (Alalus) oder Affenmenschen (Pithecanthropus) unterscheiden, welcher zwar körperlich dem Menschen in allen wesentlichen Merkmalen schon gleichgebildet, aber noch ohne den Besitz der gegliederten Wortsprache war." (Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. Fischer, Jena).

18. Walker, A., M. R. Zimmerman, and R. E. Leakey. 1982. A possible case of hypervi-taminosis A in Homo erectus. Nature 296: 248-50.

19. A more recent interpretation of the pathological bone deposits in the Homo erectus skeleton ER 1808 is that this individual had yaws, a parasitic infection by spirochete bacteria (Rothschild, B. M., I. Hershkovitz, and C. Rothschild. 1995. Origin of yaws in the Pleistocene. Nature 378: 343). If so, this would be by far the earliest evidence of this disease in the world. Yaws tends to afflict modern children between the ages of two and five years old and it is most common in overcrowded conditions in the hot and humid tropics. Although possible, this interpretation is less likely for an adult hominid in the sparsely populated mid-Pleistocene in an area of northern Kenya not likely to have been "humid" at this time.

20. O'Connell, J., K. Hawkes, and N. G. Blurton Jones. 1999. Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution 36: 461-86.

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Chapter 8 Alpha and Omega: Resolving the

Ultimate Questions of the Beginnings and Endings of Homo erectus, the Species

1. We use the term "hominid" in its generally accepted sense of a member of the family Hominidae, composed of humans and their bipedal fossil relatives. Some specialists use the term "hominin" to refer to this grouping, which is a taxonomic term for a zoological tribe. In our usage, hominids are a separate family distinct from the families of apes—the ape and human families are included in the superfamily Homi-noidea.

2. For a summary of hominoid evolution, see Boaz, N. T., and A. J. Almquist. 2002. Biological Anthropology, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.; and Fleagle, J. G. 1998. Primate Evolution and Adaptation, 2nd ed. Academic Press, London.

3. See Boaz, N. T. 1997a. Eco Homo. Basic Books, New York.

4. Tobias, P, and G. H. R. von Koenigswald. 1964. A comparison between the Olduvai hominines and those of Java and some implications for hominid phylogeny. Nature 204: 515-18.

5. Boaz, N. T., and F. C. Howell. 1977. A gracile hominid cranium from upper Member G of the Shungura Formation, Ethiopia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 46: 93-108.

6. Cronin, J., N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, and Y. Rak. 1981. Tempo and mode in hominid evolution. Nature 292: 113-22.

7. Tobias, P. V. 1991. Olduvai Gorge, Vol. 4. The Skulls, Endocasts, and Teeth of Homo habilis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

8. Brown, F. 1994. Development of Pliocene and Pleistocene chronology of the Turkana Basin, East Africa, and its relation to other sites. In Integrative Paths to the Past: PaleoanthropologicalAdvances in Honor of F. Clark Howell. Edited by R. S. Corruccini and R. L. Ciochon. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 285-312.

9. Sartono, S. 1971. Observations on a new skull of Pithecanthropus erectus (Pithecanthropus VIII) from Sangiran, Central Java. Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 74(2): 185-94.

10. This specimen was named Homo modjokertensis by von Koenigswald in 1936 and was recently considered early Homo erectus in a study by Susan Anton (Anton, S. 2002. Evolutionary significance of cranial variation in Asian Homo erectus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 118: 301-23).

11. Swisher III, C. C., G. H. Curtis, T. Jacob, A. G. Getty, A. Suprijo, and Widiasmoro. 1994. Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science 266: 1118-21.

12. Huang, W., R. L. Ciochon, Y. Gu, R. Larick, Q. Fang, C. Yonge, J. de Vos, H. Schwarcz, and W. Rink. 1995. Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature 378: 275-78.

13. Gabunia, L., A. Vekua, and D. Lordkipanidze. 2000. The environmental contexts of early human occupation of Georgia (Transcaucasia). Journal of Human Evolution 38(2): 785-802.

14. Groves, C. P., and V. Mazak. 1975. An approach to the taxonomy of the Homi-nidae: Gracile Villafranchian hominids of Africa. Casopispro Mineralogii a Geologii 20: 225-47.

16. Larick, R., and R. L. Ciochon. 1996a. The African emergence and early Asian dispersals of the genus Homo. American Scientist 84: 538-51.

17. Boaz, N. T. 1997b. Calibration and extension of the record of Plio-Pleistocene Hominidae. In Biological Anthropology: The State of the Science. Edited by N. T. Boaz and L. Wolfe. 2nd ed. International Institute of Human Evolutionary Research, Bend, Oregon, pp. 25-52.

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20. Stringer, C. B., and R. McKie. 1997. African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. Henry Holt, New York.

21. Ruff, C. 1991. Climate and body shape in hominid evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 21: 81-105.

22. Zuckerkandl, E., and L. Pauling. 1965. Molecules as documents of evolutionary history. Journal of Theoretical Biology 8(2): 357—66.

23. See Strum, S. C., D. Lindburg, and D. Hamburg (editors). 1999. The New Physical Anthropology: Science, Humanism, and Critical Reflection. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.

24. Aiello and Wells (2002); Anton, S. C., W. R. Leonard, and M. L. Robertson. 2002. An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 773—85.

25. Huffman, O. F. 2001. Geologic context and age of the Perning/Mojokerto Homo erectus, East Java. Journal of Human Evolution 40: 353—62.

27. The nickname of the "Out of Africa" theory comes from the novel of the same name written by Danish writer Isak Dinesen (Dinesen, I. [K. Blixen]. 1937. Out of Africa. Putnam, London). It was made into a motion picture in 1985, was directed by Sydney Pollack, and starred Meryl Streep and Robert Redford.

28. Swisher III, C. C., W. J. Rink, S. C. Anton, H. P. Schwarcz, G. H. Curtis, A. Suprijo, and Widiasmoro. 1996. Latest Homo erectus in Java: Potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia. Science 274: 1870—74.

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Chapter 9 Testing the New Hypotheses

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