The coauthors of this book met in 1973 while they were both graduate students in paleoanthropology at F. Clark Howell's laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley. Although much of the lab's focus was then on Africa and Howell's Omo Research Expedition to Ethiopia, China was beginning to open up to renewed international paleoanthropological research. Howell was a member of the paleoanthropology delegation from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to the People's Republic of China in 1975 and came back with news of great research possibilities. Ciochon was soon after to begin his own research projects in Asia, beginning with Burma in 1977, and extending over the next 25 years to India, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Indonesia. Boaz, on the other hand, continued his paleoanthropological research in Africa, working in Ethiopia, Libya, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. About ten years ago, however, their interests began to converge on the site of Zhoukoudian, also known as "Dragon Bone Hill" ("Longgushan" in Chinese). In 1993 Boaz met Professor Xiangqing Shao, a visiting physical anthropologist from Fudan University in Shanghai, China, in a graduate seminar he was teaching at George Washington University. Shao interested Boaz in renewed field research at Zhoukoudian, and after they had exchanged several letters with the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing (IVPP), a joint research project began to take form. The ensuing agreement enabled the international and multi-institutional research on the Dragon Bone Hill site that Boaz and Ciochon have undertaken with Chinese colleagues, and which forms the basis of this volume. Professor Shao later also assisted Professor Alison Brooks of George Washington University in setting up an archaeological field school at Zhoukoudian before his untimely death in Washington, D.C., in 1999. Professor Shao is thanked for his role in furthering Chinese-American scientific cooperation and international paleo-anthropological research.

Our colleagues at IVPP in Beijing, Professor Qinqi Xu, former director of the Zhoukoudian International Research Center, and Jinyi Liu, were our coauthors on several professional papers published on this research. They were instrumental in planning our joint research, in constructing the Zhoukoudian excavation map, and in developing our collaborative taphonomic research of the extensive Zhoukoudian collections housed in Beijing and the Zhoukoudian Museum. Our January 1999 sojourn with them at Zhoukoudian was memorable for demonstrating to us what a chilly life it must have been for Peking Man in the Ice Age of northern China, and for how grateful we were for the amenities of the warm and hospitable Zhoukoudian guest house in which we stayed. Our many friends and colleagues at IVPP—Professors Xinzhi Wu, Wei Dong, Yamei Hou, Weiwen Huang, Wanbo Huang, and Yumin Gu, among others—are thanked for their many kindnesses and for their hospitality during our trips to China.

We owe a debt of gratitude to Professor Steve Weiner, chair of the Department of Environmental Sciences at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovat, Israel, where Boaz spent the 1993—94 academic year as a Meyerhoff Visiting Professor. Applying Weiner's research methods—so successful in elucidating the geochemistry of traces of fire at Hayonim Cave in Israel— to the problem of fire at Zhoukoudian, seemed perfect. It was through Dr. Weiner's initiative that Dr. Xu went to Israel to learn the technique of X-ray analysis of sediments, which set the stage for the team of Weiner, Paul Goldberg, and Ofer Bar-Yosef to travel to China for the fieldwork that has so enlightened and informed our understanding of fire and the sedimen-tological history of Longgushan.

For access to collections and for productive and enjoyable discussions related to Asian Homo erectus, we thank Ian Tattersall, Eric Delson, Ken Mowbray, and Gary Sawyer of the American Museum of Natural History and our Indonesian colleagues Y. Zaim and F. Aziz. Over the years our discussions with G. H. R. von Koenigswald, F. Clark Howell, Sherwood Washburn, Phillip Tobias, Alan Walker, Geoff Pope, John Olsen, Milford Wolpoff, Philip Rightmire, Chris Stringer, John Fleagle, Alison Brooks, Rick Potts, Jack Cronin, Alan Almquist, Yoel Rak, and Robert Franciscus have contributed to the ideas presented in this volume. Peter Brown's paper at the 1991 "Pithecanthropus" symposium at the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt had a seminal effect on our thinking regarding Homo erectus cranial thickness. Chris Davett of the Washington State University Electron Microscope Center assisted with Scanning Electron Microscope analysis. Sandy Martin and Lynette Nearn are thanked for their significant contributions to our cranial pachyostosis studies. Christopher Janus, Lucian Pye, and Martin Taschdjian provided valuable insights into historical aspects of the disappearance and search for the Peking Man fossils.

We thank the following for their help in archival and library research for the project: Paula Willey of the American Museum of Natural History Library, New York City; and Ken Rose, Mindy Gordon, Darwin Stapleton, and Tom Rosenbaum of the Rockefeller Foundation Archives in Sleepy Hollow, New York. We owe special thanks to the staffs of the libraries at the University of Iowa (especially the interlibrary loan office), the Ross University School of Medicine, Old Dominion University, the Weizmann Institute of Science, Washington State University, Portland State University, the Portland (Oregon) Public Library, the University of California at Berkeley, Georgetown University (Walter Granger and Lucille Swan Collections), and the Smithsonian Institution (Frank Webb Collection).

John Olsen, Milford Wolpoff, and Robert Franciscus critically read the manuscript and we thank them for many valuable comments and suggestions. Rubén Uribe, Nathan Totten, Michael Zimmerman, and Erin Schembari helped with computer graphics. Wei Dong graciously scanned early photos of Zhoukoudian from the collections at the IVPP. Aidi Yin, M.D. and Yaoming Gu, M.D., assisted us in translating from Chinese. Jessica White commented on editorial issues. K. Lindsay Eaves-Johnson helped with editing the text and checking the bibliography. We thank our editors at Oxford University Press, Kirk Jensen and Clifford Mills, for their patience and valued assistance. Others who have assisted in forming our concepts and putting them into written form include Bruce Nichols, Le Anh Tu Packard, and Vittorio Maestro. We also acknowledge Le Anh Tu Packard for helpful comments on the final draft of the manuscript. We also thank agent Susan Rabiner for her help in promoting the project and Bill McCampbell for facilitating it. Finally, Meleisa McDonell, Lydia Boaz, Peter Boaz, Alexander Boaz, and Noriko Ikeda Ciochon are thanked for their patience and forbearance while this book was being written. Funding for Boaz was provided by the International Foundation for Human Evolutionary Research and the Ross University School of Medicine. Funding for Ciochon was from the dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Iowa, and the Human Evolution Research Fund of the University of Iowa Foundation.

Authors' royalties from the sale of this volume will be donated to the Zhoukoudian Museum at Dragon Bone Hill, a United Nations World Heritage site.

Noel T. Boaz

Russell L. Ciochon

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