The take-home message of many a lawyer joke is that lawyers are an especially voracious kind of shark. Teaching embryology during one of the recurring vogues for these jokes, I remember thinking that the joke is on all of us. We're all modified sharks—or, worse, there is a lawyer inside each of us.
As we've seen, much of the secret of heads lies in the arches, the swellings that gave us the road map for the complicated cranial nerves and key structures inside the head. Those insignificant-looking swellings and indentations have captured the imagination of anatomists for 150 years, because they look like the gill slits in the throat regions of fish and sharks.
Fish embryos have these bulges and indentations, too. In fish, the indentations ultimately open up to form the spaces between the gills where water flows. In us, the indentations normally seal over. In abnormal cases, gill slits fail to close and remain open as pouches or cysts. A branchial cyst, for example, is often a benign fluid-filled cyst that forms in an open pouch inside the neck; the pouch is created by the failure of the third or fourth arch to close. Rarely, children are born with an actual vestige of an ancient gill arch cartilage, a little rod that represents a gill bar from the third arch. In these instances, my surgical colleagues are operating on an inner fish that unfortunately has come back to bite us.
Every head on every animal from a shark to a human shares those four arches in development. The richness of the story lies in what happens inside each arch. Here, we can make a point-by-point comparison between our heads and those of sharks.
The gill region of a developing human and a developing shark look the same
Look at the first arch in a human and a shark, and you find a very similar state of affairs: jaws. The major difference is that humans' first arch also forms some ear bones, which we do not see in sharks. Unsurprisingly, the cranial nerve that supplies the jaws of humans and sharks is the first arch nerve, the trigeminal nerve.
The cells inside the second gill arch divide, change, and give rise to a bar of cartilage and muscle. In us, the bar of cartilage breaks up to form one of the three bones of our middle ear (the stapes) and some other small structures at the base of the head and throat. One of these bones, called the hyoid, assists us in swallowing. Take a gulp, listen to music, and thank the structures that form from your second arch.
In a shark, the second arch rod breaks up to form two bones that support the jaws: a lower one that compares with our hyoid and an upper one that supports the upper jaw. If you have ever watched a great white shark try to chomp something—a diver in a cage, for example—you have probably noticed that the upper jaw can extend and retract as the shark bites. The upper bone of this second arch is part of the lever system of bones that rotate to make that possible. That upper bone is remarkable in another way, too. It compares with one of the bones in our middle ear: the stapes. Bones that support the upper hi/nanembrri
and lower jaws in sharks are used in us to swallow and hear.
As for the third and fourth arches, we find that many of the structures we use to talk and swallow are, in sharks, parts of tissues that support the gills. The muscles and cranial nerves we use to swallow and talk move the gills in sharks and fish.
At first glance, our cranial nerves (bottom right) appear different from those of a shark (bottom left). But look closely and you will find profound similarities. Virtually all of our nerves are present in sharks. The parallels go deeper still: equivalent nerves in sharks and humans supply similar structures, and they even exit the brain in the same order (top left and right).
Our head may look incredibly complicated, but it is built from a simple and elegant blueprint. There is a pattern common to every skull on earth, whether it belongs to a shark, a bony fish, a salamander, or a human. The discovery of this pattern was a major accomplishment of nineteenth-century anatomy, a time when anatomists were putting embryos of all kinds of species under the microscope. In 1872, the Oxford anatomist Francis Maitland Balfour first saw the basic plan of heads when he looked at sharks and saw the bulges, the gill arches, and the structures inside. Unfortunately, he died soon after in a mountaineering accident in the Swiss Alps. He was only in his thirties.
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