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A tree diagram phylogeny linking human species. Dotted bars indicate tentative time ranges. The broad outline of the tree is established, but new discoveries may alter the proposed connections between the branches. precision grip that is well suited for opening a jar, writing with a pencil, or flaking stone. The chimpanzee human difference is manifest in the first or thumb metacarpal, the bone at the edge of the palm that runs between the wrist and the thumb itself. In chimpanzees, the thumb...

Indian Ocean

Locations of the sites with Oldowan tools, fossils of early Homo, or both mentioned in the text. the tool-bearing layer accumulated just before 2.5 million years ago. The paleomagnetic method relies on the repeated tendency of Earth's magnetic field to flip 180 degrees, meaning that the direction a compass needle would point has periodically shifted from north to south and back again. Iron particles in volcanic rocks and in fine-grained sediments like those at Gona retain the ancient direction...

Gona

Biface Manufacture

Kaena Reversed Subchron Mammoth Reversed Subchron Cochiti Normal Subchron I Nunivak Normal Subchron Sidufjall Normal Subchron I Thvera Normal Subchron Older artifacts may exist, but southern African and other eastern African sites indicate that they cannot be much older. Deposits that are about 2 million years old at the robustus cave of Swartkrans in South Africa contain flaked stone artifacts, but deposits dated between roughly 3 million and 2.5 million years ago at the africanus caves of...

Images Of Chimp Jaws

Lucy Australopithecus Mary Leakey

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I millions of brain expansion reduction of chewing teeth stone artifact manufacture archeological sites consumption of large mammals Top Time spans of the most commonly recognized human species that existed before 1 million years ago. Bottom Time spans of some key anatomical and behavioral traits. Broken lines imply less secure or more speculative dating. Among other ape-like characteristics that africanus...

Late Acheulean

Skull And Bones 1952

An early Acheulean cleaver from Sterkfontein Cave and a late Acheulean cleaver from Elandsfontein Cutting 10 top redrawn after K. Kuman 1994, Journal of Human Evolution 27, fig. 6 bottom drawn by T. P. Volman from the original . and belonged to a very ancient period indeed, even beyond the present world. Frere's archeological colleagues largely ignored his opinion, and it was the French customs official Boucher de Perthes who first forced the issue. Between about 1836 and 1846, de Perthes...

Paranthropus aethiopicus

Protruding Incisors

Kenya National Museum-West Turkana Specimen No. 17000 The Black Skull, Paranthropus aethiopicus, from West Turkana, Kenya drawn by Kathryn Cruz-Uribe from photographs Copyright Kathryn Cruz-Uribe . assigned to the species Paranthropus aethiopicus, and it is a plausible link between afarensis and boisei robustus. Other east African sites that date between 2.5 and 2 million years ago have provided jaws and isolated teeth that may represent either aethiopicus or early boisei. The second lineage...