Chapter four

1. A. G. Maier et al., "Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Invasion through Glycophorin C and Selection for Gerbich Negativity in Hman Populations," Nature Medicine 9, no. 1 (2003) 87-92.

2. T. J. Vullaimy et al., "Diverse Point Mutations in the Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Cause Enzyme Deficiency and Mild or Severe Hemolytic Anemia," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85, no. 14 (1988): 5171-5175; Bernadette Modell and Matthew Darlison, "Global Epidemiology of Haemoglobin Disorders and Derived Service Indicators," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86, no. 6 (2008): 480-487.

3. Richard Carter and Kamini N. Mendis, "Evolutionary and Historical Aspects of the Burden of Malaria," Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15 (2002): 564-594; Matthew A. Saunders et al., "The Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium Caused by Selection on G6PD in Humans," Genetics 171, no. 3 (2005): 1219-1229; Jun Ohashi et al., "Extended Linkage Disequilibrium surrounding the Hemoglobin E Variant due to Malarial Selection," American Journal of Human Genetics 74, no. 6 (2004): 1198-1208.

4. Meredith E. Protas et al., "Genetic Analysis of Cavefish Reveals Molecular Convergence in the Evolution of Albinism," Nature Genetics 38, no. 1 (2006): 107-111.

5. Gwynneth Stevens et al., "Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA2) in Sub-Saharan Africa: Distribution of the Common 2.7-kb P Gene Deletion Mutation," Human Genetics 99, no. 4 (1997): 523-527.

6. Zanhua Yi et al., "A 122.5-Kilobase Deletion of the P Gene Underlies the High Prevalence of Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 in the Navajo Population," American Journal of Human Genetics 72, no. 1 (2003): 62-72.

7. John R. Baker, Race (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974),


8. Benjamin F. Voight et al., "A Map of Recent Positive Selection in the Human Genome," PLoS Biology 4, no. 3 (2006): e72.

9. W. P. Rock et al., "A Cephalometric Comparison of Skulls from the Fourteenth, Sixteenth and Twentieth Centuries," British Dental Journal 200 (2006): 33-37.

10. Scott H. Williamson et al., "Localizing Recent Adaptive Evolution in the Human Genome," PLoS Genetics 10 (2007).

12. John Hawks, "Adaptive Evolution of Human Hearing and the Appearance of Language," Seventy-Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, April 11, 2008, Columbus, Ohio.

Notes to Pages 104-126 235

13. John Reader, Africa: A Biography of the Continent (New York: Knopf, 1998).

14. Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007).

15. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract (Baltimore: Penguin Classics, 1968).

16. John Robert McNeill and William H. McNeill, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2003).

17. Robert C. Allen, "Agriculture and the Origins of the State in Ancient Egypt," Explorations in Economic History 34, no. 2 (1997): 135-154.

18. Laoise T. Moore et al., "A Y-Chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland," American Journal of Human Genetic. 78, no. 2 (2006): 334-338.

19. Rene Grousset, The Empire ofthe Steppes: A History of Central Asia (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1970).

20. Mark G.Thomas et al., "Evidence for an Apartheid-Like Social Structure in Early Anglo-Saxon England," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273, no. 1601 (2006): 2651-2657.

21. Robert Sallares et al., "The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems," Medical History 48, no, 3 (2004):311-328.

22. The song "Is There for Honest Poverty," by Robert Burns, is more commonly known as "A Man's A Man for a'That," and is famous for its eloquent support of egalitarianism.

23. Jesse L. Byock, Viking Age Iceland (New York: Penguin, 2001).

24. Daniel G. MacArthur et al., "Loss of ACTN3 Gene Function Alters Mouse Muscle Metabolism and Shows Evidence of Positive Selection in Humans," Nature Genetics 39, no. 10 (2007): 1261.

25. William D. Hamilton, Narrow Roads of Gene Land: The Collected Papers ofW.D. Hamilton, vol. 1, Evolution of Social Behaviour (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

26. Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005), 417.

27. Valerie Bockstette et al., "States and Markets: The Advantage of an Early Start," Journal of Economic Growth 7 (2002): 347-369; Douglas O. Hibbs and Ola Olsson, "Geography, Biogeography, and Why Some Countries Are Rich and Others Are Poor," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (2004): 3715-3720.

28. Kay R. Jamison, Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament (New York: Free Press, 1993).

29. R. M. Nesse and George C. Williams, "Darwinian Medicine," Life Science Research 3 (1999): 1—17.

30. P. A. Hoodbhoy, "Science and the Islamic World—The Quest for Rapprochement," Physics Today 60, no. 8 (2007): 49-55.

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