Chapter six

1. Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

2. L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza et al., The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994).

3. Montgomery Slatkin and Christina A. Muirhead, "A Method for Estimating the Intensity of Overdominant Selection from the Distribution of Allele Frequencies," Genetics 156, no. 4 (2000): 2119-2126.

4. Kristin N. Harper et al., "On the Origin of the Treponematoses: A Phylogenetic Approach," PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2, no. 1: e148 doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000148.

5. Noble David Cook, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492—1650 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

6. William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1976).

7. Alison P. Galvani and Montgomery Slatkin, "Evaluating Plague and Smallpox as Historical Selective Pressures for the CCR5-delta32 HIV-Resistance Allele," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, no. 25 (2003): 15276-15279.

8. Analabha Basu et al., "Genome-Wide Distribution of Ancestry in Mexican Americans," Human Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s00439-008-0541-5.

9. Ana Magdalena Hurtado et al., "The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases among South American Indians: A Call for Guidelines for Ethical Research," Current Anthropology 42, no. 3 (2001): 425-432.

10. Richard Gordon, Great Medical Disasters (New York: Stein and Day, 1983), 41.

11. Henry Kamen, Empire: How Spain Became a World Power, 1492-1763 (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), 205.

12. Charles R. Darwin, The Voyage of the Beagle (New York: Bantam Books, 1958), 376.

13. Aristotle, History of Animals (New York: Kessinger, 2004), 226.

14. Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 139.

15. James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, The Oxford Introduction to Proto Indo European and the Proto Indo European World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); David Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007).

16. James P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth (London: Thames and Hudson, 1989).

17. Raymond D. Crotty, When Histories Collide: The Development and Impact of Individualistic Capitalism (Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press, 2001); Morton O. Cooper and W.J. Spillman, "Farmer's Bulletin No. 877—Human Food from an Acre of Staple Farm Products," Farmers' Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1919).

18. The line in the Iliad has been translated this way: "The Hippe-molgi, whose diet is mares' milk ..." Homer, translated by Stanley Lombardo, Iliad (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997), 239.

19. Herodotus, translated by Aubrey de Selincourt, The Histories (New York: Penguin, 1972), 310-315.

20. J. Burger et al. "Absence of the Lactase-Persistence-Associated Allele in Early Neolithic Europeans," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, no. 10 (2007): 3736.

21. Sarah A.Tishkoff et al., "Convergent Adaptation of Human Lactase Persistence in Africa and Europe," Nature Genetics 39, no. 1 (2007): 31-40.

22. Bruce Lincoln, Priests, Warriors, and Cattle: A Study in the Ecology of Religions (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981).

23. N. S. Enattah et al., "Independent Introduction ofTwo Lactase-Persistence Alleles into Human Populations Reflects Different History of Adaptation to Milk Culture," American Journal of Human Genetics 82, no. 1 (2008): 57-72.

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