Human Figure Ebook
A year or two later the international space organization, COSPAR, was meeting in Florence, Italy. In one of the splendid side benefits of such meetings, the Uffizi Gallery was opened one evening especially for the members of the COSPAR delegations from various nations. As chance would have it, I was with Alexander Alexandrovitch Imshenetsky as we entered an enormous and apparently empty Botticelli-inundated gallery. And there, at the other end of the gallery, a human figure could dimly be perceived. I felt Imshenetsky stiffen. Peering intently, I could now make out the visage of Igor Rogovin, his face disguised by a beard. He was, no doubt, traveling incognito. Imshenetsky leaned over to me and whispered, Isn't that the fellow who was with us in Los Angeles When I nodded assent, Imshenetsky murmured, Very stupid fellow.
However, it was recognised that more data was needed to counteract the effects of microgravity on the human skeletal system. Biorack was a unique facility in that it could house multiple biological samples, with a total of 19 separate experiments performed during IML-2. Among these was a Norwegian investigation into the growth of genetically modified rapeseed roots and cress seeds. Another study examined the behaviour of fruit flies its developer, Roberto Marco, was testing his hypothesis that the reason for premature ageing of the insects was due to increased activity as they struggled to move around in the strange microgravity environment.
Louis and Mary Leakey had searched assiduously for early humans at Olduvai Gorge from 1931 onwards. By 1955, the only hominin skeletal remains available were Hans Reck's 1913 human skeleton (Olduvai Hominid 1), and two thick fragments of cranial vault (OH 2) which Mary Leakey had found at the site of MNK. I studied these two fragments at the Natural History Museum in London in June 1964. They were recorded as cf. H. erectus in Mary Leakey's 1971 book. In 1955, a giant molar tooth and a canine (OH 3) were found in Upper Bed II at site BK. Much excitement was aroused at the time by the gigantic dimensions of the molar, especially as it showed the hallmarks of a deciduous tooth. It was served up as an hors-d'oeuvre for the sumptuous repast provided by the type specimen of Australopithecus boisei 4 years later.
The skeletal record clearly supports the idea that there has been rapid evolutionary change in humans over the past 10,000 years. The human skeleton has become more gracile more lightly built though more so in some populations than others. Our jaws have shrunk, our long bones have become lighter, and brow ridges have disappeared in most populations (with the notable exception of Australian aborigines, who have also changed, but not as much they still have brow ridges, and their skulls are about twice as thick as those of other peoples.)7 Skull volume has decreased, apparently in all populations In Europeans, volume is down about 10 percent from the high point about 20,000 years ago. These changes were spread out over time, of course.
Mitochondria are tiny organelles inside cells that generate almost all our energy in the form of ATP. On average there are 300-400 in every cell, giving ten million billion in the human body. Essentially all complex cells contain mitochondria. They look like bacteria, and appearances are not deceptive they were once free-living bacteria, which adapted to life inside larger cells some two billion years ago. They retain a fragment of a genome as a badge of former independence. Their tortuous relations with their host cells have shaped the whole fabric of life, from energy, sex, and fertility, to cell suicide, ageing, and death.
The visual message began with the numbers one to ten in binary notation and then moved on to the atomic numbers of key chemical elements and to the structure of DNA. Immediately below the DNA helix, Drake placed a schematic drawing of a human figure, a sketch of the solar system, and a simplified image of a radio telescope. Thus, the Arecibo team assumed that aliens who received their message understood terrestrial mathematics, chemistry, and biology, as well as the technology of radio telescopes.
What a piece of work is the mammalian skeleton. I don't mean it is beautiful in itself, although I think it is. I mean the fact that we can talk about 'the' mammalian skeleton at all the fact that such a complicatedly interlocking thing is so gloriously different across the mammals, in all its parts, while simultaneously being so obviously the same thing throughout the mammals. Our own skeleton is familiar enough to need no picture, but look at this skeleton of a bat. Isn't it fascinating how every bone has its own identifiable counterpart in the human skeleton Identifiable, because of the order in which they join up to each other. Only the proportions are different. The bat's hands are hugely enlarged (relative to its total size, of course) but nobody could possibly miss the correspondence between our fingers and those long bones in the wings. The human hand and the bat hand are obviously - no sane person could deny it - two versions of the same thing. The technical term for this...
Unquestionably the most important find so far made at Creswell is that of an engraved bone, 8 2 inches long, believed to be a piece of rib, bearing at one end the drawing of a masked human figure in the act of dancing a ceremonial dance. This is a unique find and of the greatest importance to British archaeology, as it establishes a definite
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.