Section Critique Comparison of data for SSA and Mesoamerica

There is certainly something to be said for Dr. Diamond's thesis. Eurasia, and particularly the Middle East, did have a far greater supply of useful and easily domesticable plants and animals than any other region. It is also true that both Australia and the United States were badly lacking in such species. However, the facts do not support his theory when it is applied to a comparison between sub-Saharan Africa and Mesoamerica. 1) Flora. Dr. Diamond rightly stresses the importance of cereal...

Section Some subraces

Although various other racial groups have been identified, most of them appear to be subgroups of the races already described. For example, because of their small stature, the Pygmies living in central Africa (the Congoid Pygmies) can easily be distinguished from the nearby Negro tribes. However, their resemblance to the Negroes who constitute most of the population of sub-Saharan Africa is obvious, so I think it reasonable to classify both groups as branches (or sub-races) of a larger racial...

Section The early caliphs and the Shiite Sunni split

When Muhammad died, a conclave of his followers promptly chose his close friend and associate Abu Bakr to be his successor, or caliph. Abu Bakr died two years later, and the next three caliphs were 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644), Othman (644-656), and Ali (656-661). Ali (who was a first cousin of the Prophet, and also his son-in-law) was killed in the course of a civil war. The victor in that war was Mu'awiya, who became the founder of the Umayyad (or Omayyad) Caliphate. However, the supporters...

Section Why did constitutional democracy begin in England

Why, for example did it not originate in France, or Germany, or Italy, or Russia, or China, or Japan To answer this question, we should consider the conditions that lead to the adoption and continuance of a democratic form of government in a country. 1 High intelligence. Constitutional democracy is a difficult form of government to practice, and experience shows that countries where the average IQ is low have rarely been able to practice it successfully, even if helped from the outside. This...

Into Iran and India

The Fertile Crescent and Nearby Regions present continuation of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers In neither Europe nor India was agriculture developed independently. It has been suggested that it was invented independently in tropical West Africa and or the Sudan,2 but the chronology makes this highly unlikely. We know that agriculture was being widely practiced in the Fertile Crescent by 9 kya, but it was not practiced in tropical West Africa until about 5 kya. In the intervening millennia, it had...

Section Miscellaneous differences

The incidence of the various blood types varies greatly between different human groups. For example, about 24 of the population of India has type B blood, but only 13 of sub-Saharan Africans, 8 of Europeans, 2 of Australian aborigines, and less than half a percent of South American Indians do. About 27 of Europeans have type A blood, as do 26 of East Asians, but only 1 of South American Indians.25 These differences may have arisen because the degree of resistance to certain serious diseases...

Section The Neolithic transition in various regions

Because of the rise of global temperatures at the end of the last ice age, the transition to a farming way of life began in this region about 11 kya. The theoretical calculations in appendix 4 suggest that the threshold IQ should have been reached about 12 kya a surprisingly close approximation to the empirical data collected by archaeologists. Appendix 4 also shows the theoretical calculations for the other regions. With an excellent assortment of domesticable plants and...

Section Which groups made the great inventions of the Upper Paleolithic

From Table 19-1, it appears that almost all of the important inventions of that era were made by members of the ,-group. One of the inventions pottery was made by Mongolids but it appears that most of the others were made by -3s dwelling in Europe. None were made by Negroids, nor by any other group living in tropical regions. These facts are consistent with - and most easily explained by - the hypothesis that the groups that were living in cold climates had already evolved higher intelligence...

Section The origin of the Mongoloids

The genetic data indicates that the original ,-group was ancestral to the Caucasoids, the Asian Mongoloids, and the American Indians.1 This chapter will attempt to outline that expansion, and present a rough chronology of it. It is widely agreed that the American Indians or Amends are much more closely related to the Asian Mongoloids or Mongolids than they are to any other group. The split between the Caucasoids and the Mongoloids must therefore have considerably preceded the division between...

Section Jared Diamonds hypothesis

Professor Diamond is eager to show there is no genetic component to the well-known gap in average IQ between whites and blacks, and in his book he attempts to explain how the Europeans became so much more advanced technologically than the inhabitants of SSA, the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and New Guinea despite the absence of any genetic superiority. Near the beginning of his book, Dr. Diamond states that the notion that there are genetic factors which cause Europeans to be more intelligent...

Section The dual code of morality

It has often been noted that human beings living in civilized states appear to follow a dual code of morality. Within our own society, cooperation is highly valued, and killing another person is a grievous sin. However, when we are engaged in a war with another nation, not only are we permitted to kill members of that nation, but we are encouraged to do so. Indeed, those who are conspicuously successful in wreaking havoc and destruction upon that other nation are highly praised and considered...