Section Was the paucity of achievements due to geographic handicaps

In Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond asserts that the technological backwardness of the peoples of SSA is not due to any deficiencies in their intelligence, but is entirely due to accidental geographic factors. His arguments are ingenious however (as was shown in section 24-3) the same geographic factors which Dr. Diamond claims favored Eurasia over SSA also favored SSA over Mesoamerica. Hence, if his theory were correct, civilization should have developed earlier, and progressed further,...

Geography

The central fact of geography is that the Earth is round. This discovery was made about 500 bc, and is usually attributed to Pythagoras. The size o f the Earth. This was first calculated by Eratosthenes. His estimate (made in the 3rd century bc) was within a few percent of the correct value. Latitude and longitude. This useful system of coordinates was employed by Hipparchus, extending a suggestion made by Dicaearchus. Map of the world. An early one was constructed by...

Section Technological developments

The 20th century saw remarkable advances in science and technology. More than any other century, it deserves to be called The Age of Science. Some of the noteworthy advances are listed in Tables 51-1 and 51-2. Many of those discoveries and inventions are of great importance, and some (such as computers and genetic engineering) are truly revolutionary in their impact. Almost all of the scientists and engineers involved in those breakthroughs were European or American whites.

Footnotes Chapter

See particularly Figure 2 and the discussion on p. 6772. 2) Patai and Wing (1975), The Myth of the Jewish Race. See section 4 (pp. 31-39) of chapter 1. 3) See Cochran, G., J. Hardy. & H. Harpending (in press), especially Table 1 and pp. 14-15. 4) See Cochran, G., J. Hardy. & H. Harpending (in press), p. 10 and sources cited therein. 5) An excellent presentation of that hypothesis, along with a history of the Khazar state, can be found in Arthur Koestler's...

Section Broader significance of the CHH paper

The significance of that paper goes far beyond the question of the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews. Since we know that genetic factors play a part in an individual's intelligence, it has long been clear that there must be some specific alleles that affect IQ. The politically correct position in recent decades has been to assert that all such alleles are equally distributed among ethnic groups (for otherwise, ethnic differences in IQ would not be caused entirely by differences in upbringing and...

Section A tentative history of Jewish IQs

As so many hypotheses have been discussed, it seems advisable to present an overall scenario which explains the resulting distribution of Jewish IQs. The calculations which follow are, of course, only very rough estimates but the assumptions they are based on are reasonable, and the results are consistent with what we know about medieval Jews and their activities. a) The average IQ of the original Hebrew tribesmen was probably similar to that of the other Semitic tribes then living in the...

Section Genetic diseases common among Ashkenazi Jews

The CHH paper identifies some of the alleles involved in the high average IQ of the Ashkenazim. Some of them are responsible for higher levels of glucosylceramide (a compound which has been shown by in vitro experiments to promote axonal growth and branching of neurons), or of GM2 ganglioside (which increases dendritogenesis). The paper also discusses other alleles common among Ashkenazi Jews, some of which improve DNA repair. However, like many other alleles, those that are responsible for the...

Section A recent suggestion

A very interesting hypothesis has recently been introduced by Cochran, Hardy, and Harpending (hereafter referred to as CHH). According to them, the high IQ of modern Ashkenazi Jews is an example of Darwinian evolution, resulting from the fact that for centuries a high proportion of their ancestors occupied an unusual economic niche, a niche which placed great practical value on high intelligence. For centuries, those Jews who succeeded as merchants, tax collectors, and moneylenders became...

Section Some suggested genetic explanations

It has often been suggested that the persecution which European Jews endured during the Middle Ages resulted in a strong selection effect in favor of those with higher native intelligence. Since severe discrimination against Jews continued for roughly fifteen centuries (or sixty generations), the selection effect would not have had to be very great to have produced a marked increase in the average IQ of the group. Superficially, this sounds plausible. However, if being persecuted or strongly...

Section An attempted environmentalist explanation

In recent decades, the only ideologically acceptable explanation for the high IQ of the Ashkenazim has been the environmental one, which assumes that there is no genetic basis to their high average IQ, but that it is entirely due to the very high emphasis that Jewish culture places on education and learning. Unfortunately for this hypothesis, studies show that an enriched childhood environment has (statistically) rather little effect on adult IQ. For example, as mentioned in section 3-8, there...

Section Evidence of the high average intelligence of the Jews

It has long been noted that Jews are greatly over-represented in the learned professions and in other intellectual occupations.10 For example, the fraction of American scientists, college professors, lawyers, physicians, journalists, writers, movie producers, and economists who are Jews is very much higher by about a factor of ten than the fraction of Jews in the general population. Also, despite widespread anti-Semitism in the old Soviet Union (including quotas restricting their access to...

Section Occupational structure of the Ashkenazi Jews

In the late Middle Ages and early modern times, the Ashkenazi Jews had a very unusual distribution of occupations. As the group had originated as emigrants and traders, relatively few of them were farmers (even in those countries where they were permitted to own land). Many other careers were closed to them. They could not be members of the aristocracy (and therefore, they were not large landowners) nor could they be army officers and, of course, they could not be members of the Christian...

Section Ashkenazim and Sephardim

By 1600, most Jews living in Europe, North Africa, or the Western Hemisphere fell into one of two main groups, the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim. (The descendants of Jews living in Asia at that time form a third group, the Oriental Jews.) The Ashkenazim (roughly speaking, the Jews of northern Europe), were primarily descended from Jews who had settled in the Rhine Valley between 500 and 1100 ad. For the most part, those settlers were Jews who had migrated from southern Europe after the fall of...

Section The Jewish gene pool

As far as we can tell, the original Hebrew tribesmen were genetically very similar to the other Semitic peoples who lived near them in Southwest Asia. Throughout ancient and medieval times, male converts to Judaism were very rare, since circumcision was required in order to convert, and very few adult males were willing to submit to that procedure. As a result, even today, the genes on the Y-chromosomes of Jews living in different countries are very similar to each other, and to those in other...

Section Jewish history through AD

Much of their early history was discussed in section 27-9. The original Hebrew kingdom, with its capital in Jerusalem, was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 bc. In the course of the next thousand years many Jews migrated from Asia into Egypt and southern Europe. A new Jewish state arose in the second century bc, but it was destroyed by the Romans in 70 ad. The victorious Romans also destroyed the temple in Jerusalem, which had previously been the center of Jewish religious ceremonies. This...

Comparisons Between Some Latin American Countries

Percent of population Mean IQ Per capita GDP Percent of population Mean IQ Per capita GDP a) World Almanac (2003 edition). In all of these countries (with the exception of Peru) the majority of the non-whites were mestizos. b) Lynn & Vanhanen (2002), Table 6.1. c) GDP gross domestic product. Source World Almanac (2003 edition).

Section Developments in Latin America

In 1800, most parts of South and Central America were colonies of either Spain or Portugal. In the early 19th century, though, there were a series of rebellions against foreign rule. As a result, between 1811 and 1825 all the Spanish colonies on the mainland achieved independence, and Brazil became an independent monarchy. (It became a republic in 1889.) The Spanish colonies all became constitutional republics when they gained their independence. However, those republics were generally...

Section The rise of the United States of America

In 1783, the United States was a young, seemingly unimportant country on the fringes of the Western world. By 1900, it led the entire world in GNP, and it had also produced a thriving literature, including such noteworthy figures as Mark Twain, Edgar Allan Poe, and Walt Whitman. In addition, the country had produced a great number of important inventions, including the steamboat, the telegraph, the telephone, anesthesia, the phonograph, the light bulb, and a system for generating electric power...

Section Japan

Europeans had reached Japan in the 16th century, and for a while European traders and missionaries had considerable influence there. But in the 17th century the Japanese government decided to cut off trade and contacts with the West. Foreigners were driven out, Japanese were forbidden to travel abroad, and trade was virtually ended. This period of isolation lasted for over 200 years. Then in 1853 (and again in 1854) American warships entered Tokyo Bay and insisted that Japan be at least partly...

Section Westernization

During the 19th and 20th centuries, many Asian and African countries began adopting Western technology, and also Western social and political attitudes and practices. This occurred even in countries that were not conquered by Europeans. The extent and rapidity of westernization in a given country depended on a variety of factors The terrain. Westernization tended to be slow in jungle, mountain, or desert regions. The nature o f the economy prior to contact with Europeans. It also tended to be...

Human Sexual Behavior And Attitudes

It has long been observed that men and women often have very different attitudes about sex, with resulting differences in their behavior. Women tend to be much more selective about whom they mate with men are typically less choosy. Men are frequently eager to engage in casual sex women are generally reluctant to do so, and often insist on a long-term commitment before engaging in sex. To the extent that men are selective, they tend to be especially attracted to women with youthful good looks....

Section Predecessors of Homo sapiens

Zoologists classify our species as part of the genus Homo, which in turn is part of the hominid family. The hominid family once included another genus (now extinct) called Australopithecus. One species within that genus was Australopithecus afarensis, which lived in East Africa about 3.5 million years ago, and from which the entire genus Homo is believed to be descended. We are the only surviving species in genus Homo (indeed, in the entire hominid family), and our closest living relatives are...

Section Political and social changes within Europe

Since the social and political history of 19th-century Europe is well covered in many history books, I will mention only the main trends here. In the course of the century, several of the attitudes of the Enlightenment spread widely within Europe. Among these attitudes were 1) Disapproval of the power and privileges of monarchs and aristocrats. (In the course of the century, those privileges were greatly curtailed in most European countries.) 2) Religious skepticism, and disapproval of clerical...

Section Moslem cultural achievements An evaluation

The set of achievements listed above clearly surpasses those of most other civilizations. Many recent writers, however, tend to exaggerate the importance of those accomplishments, and it has become fashionable to assert that Moslem civilization was enormously superior to European culture during the Middle Ages. It seems to me that that assertion is incorrect. It is true that for several centuries the Moslem world was more advanced culturally than Europe, but there are two ways in which that...

Section Explanation

How can we explain the paucity of India's contribution to world civilization Three possible explanations are 1) The rigid caste system in India resulted in far less social mobility than existed in Europe or China. India thereby wasted a much higher proportion of its human talents than those two regions did. This explanation seems to be at least partly correct. However, it fails to explain the gap between the Indians' achievements in the arts, and their much lesser achievements in mathematics,...

Section Critique Comparison of data for SSA and Mesoamerica

There is certainly something to be said for Dr. Diamond's thesis. Eurasia, and particularly the Middle East, did have a far greater supply of useful and easily domesticable plants and animals than any other region. It is also true that both Australia and the United States were badly lacking in such species. However, the facts do not support his theory when it is applied to a comparison between sub-Saharan Africa and Mesoamerica. 1) Flora. Dr. Diamond rightly stresses the importance of cereal...

Section Some subraces

Although various other racial groups have been identified, most of them appear to be subgroups of the races already described. For example, because of their small stature, the Pygmies living in central Africa (the Congoid Pygmies) can easily be distinguished from the nearby Negro tribes. However, their resemblance to the Negroes who constitute most of the population of sub-Saharan Africa is obvious, so I think it reasonable to classify both groups as branches (or sub-races) of a larger racial...

Section Why did constitutional democracy begin in England

Why, for example did it not originate in France, or Germany, or Italy, or Russia, or China, or Japan To answer this question, we should consider the conditions that lead to the adoption and continuance of a democratic form of government in a country. 1 High intelligence. Constitutional democracy is a difficult form of government to practice, and experience shows that countries where the average IQ is low have rarely been able to practice it successfully, even if helped from the outside. This...

Section The Dravidian invasion of India

The earliest signs of farming within the Indian subcontinent are found at Mehrgarh, a village in Baluchistan the westernmost section of Pakistan , where agriculture was flourishing by 8 kya 6000 bc . There are, however, strong reasons for doubting that agriculture was invented independently in the Indian subcontinent. There are no signs of farming in Mehrgarh until about 2000 years after it was established in the Middle East. Baluchistan is the part of the Indian subcontinent that is closest to...

Into Iran and India

The Fertile Crescent and Nearby Regions present continuation of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers In neither Europe nor India was agriculture developed independently. It has been suggested that it was invented independently in tropical West Africa and or the Sudan,2 but the chronology makes this highly unlikely. We know that agriculture was being widely practiced in the Fertile Crescent by 9 kya, but it was not practiced in tropical West Africa until about 5 kya. In the intervening millennia, it had...

Section Miscellaneous differences

The incidence of the various blood types varies greatly between different human groups. For example, about 24 of the population of India has type B blood, but only 13 of sub-Saharan Africans, 8 of Europeans, 2 of Australian aborigines, and less than half a percent of South American Indians do. About 27 of Europeans have type A blood, as do 26 of East Asians, but only 1 of South American Indians.25 These differences may have arisen because the degree of resistance to certain serious diseases...

Section The Neolithic transition in various regions

Because of the rise of global temperatures at the end of the last ice age, the transition to a farming way of life began in this region about 11 kya. The theoretical calculations in appendix 4 suggest that the threshold IQ should have been reached about 12 kya a surprisingly close approximation to the empirical data collected by archaeologists. Appendix 4 also shows the theoretical calculations for the other regions. With an excellent assortment of domesticable plants and...

Age of human children with comparable reasoning ability

HSS with IQs of 70 HSS with IQs of 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 The first column of Table 19-3 lists several groups in order of increasing reasoning ability. The last column shows the approximate age at which typical modern European children reach the same level of reasoning power. What is the source of the entries in the right-hand column The entry in the bottom row comes from data showing that the performance of most individuals on intelligence tests does not rise appreciably after they reach...

Section Which groups made the great inventions of the Upper Paleolithic

From Table 19-1, it appears that almost all of the important inventions of that era were made by members of the ,-group. One of the inventions pottery was made by Mongolids but it appears that most of the others were made by -3s dwelling in Europe. None were made by Negroids, nor by any other group living in tropical regions. These facts are consistent with - and most easily explained by - the hypothesis that the groups that were living in cold climates had already evolved higher intelligence...

Section Jared Diamonds hypothesis

Professor Diamond is eager to show there is no genetic component to the well-known gap in average IQ between whites and blacks, and in his book he attempts to explain how the Europeans became so much more advanced technologically than the inhabitants of SSA, the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and New Guinea despite the absence of any genetic superiority. Near the beginning of his book, Dr. Diamond states that the notion that there are genetic factors which cause Europeans to be more intelligent...

Section IQ data Mongolids

Some studies of Japanese IQs are shown in Table 15-3. Unfortunately, none of those studies included any adults. Although Lynn amp Vanhanen13 estimated the average IQ of Japanese to be 105, I think that 102 would be a somewhat better estimate see note e in Table 15-3 . The data regarding the IQs of Chinese is less clear, partly because of the paucity of studies, and partly because those we have are not representative of the Chinese population. Most of the people tested came from big cities and...