Facial Hafting Upper Facial Position Relative to Bregma

Originally described by Tobias (1967) and Howell (1978) as the position of the face relative to the neurocranium, that is, the position of the upper face (supraorbital) relative to the highest point of the cranium (usually bregma), this feature is of developmental interest because it is to some degree the result of differential patterns of anterior cranial base angula-tion, neuro-orbital disjunction, and frontal lobe development/morphology.

A low, flat squama, with the upper face being set high relative to the cranium (= 0), defines Gorilla, Sahelanthropus, and species within Paranthropus (Cameron, 1997a). A relatively rounded squama set above the face (= 1) defines Dryopithecus, Pongo, Pan, Praeanthropus, Australopithecus, the "garhi group," both species of Kenyanthropus, H. habilis, and H. ergaster. Finally, H. sapiens is defined by the unique condition of a face set low relative to the high, rounded cranium (= 2).

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