Inferior Orbital Margin

This feature helps define the depth of the face (Cameron, 1997a). It is defined by the horizontal position of the inferior orbital margins against the superior nasal aperture margin (viewed anteriorly). Three states are recognized. The first is defined by inferior orbital margins that are positioned well above the superior nasal aperture margin, indicating a tall mid-face (= 0); next is the intermediate condition (= 1); and finally, the inferior orbital margins are aligned to or below the superior nasal aperture margin, indicating a short mid-face (= 2). A deep mid-face is observed in Graecopithecus and Gorilla. The intermediate condition is observed in Dryopithecus, Pongo, Pan, Sahelanthropus, and all three species of Paranthropus. A short mid-face (2) is observed in Australopithecus, H. habilis, K. rudolfensis, H. ergaster, and H. sapiens.

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