We would seriously have to consider combining Characters II and III because they duplicate the condition of the character polarity observed in

Character I, which may—but not necessarily—imply character duplication. This is emphasized because all four of these characters are part of one region—the TMJ. The distinct condition observed in character IV, however, suggests that this is a valid character.

When defining morphometric character states, an index was generated using orbital height as the constant. In order to come to some "objective" criterion, it was deemed desirable to construct a total extant great ape range for each character and to use the mean and one standard deviation to construct an average range (Cameron, 1997b). In the allocation of hominoids, mid-supraorbital thickness was divided by the orbital height. Combining all of the indices generated for P. paniscus, P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, and P pygmaeus (n = 123), the mean and standard deviations were calculated; from this, an average range from the mean was generated (e.g., 0.22 [mean] ± 0.07 [S.D.], thus resulting in an average range of between 0.15 and 0.29). Any figure that is below the minimum (e.g., 0.15) is considered narrow, any character within the range is considered "average", and any figure greater than the maximum (e.g., 0.29) is considered broad. Mean scores (males and females combined) are used to allocate fossil and extant hominids to these conditions.

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