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the describe tree option in PAUP (Swofford, 1998). When a character is stated as being "relatively narrower," "relatively deeper," etc., this is compared to the condition at the previous node, unless stated otherwise (see Table 5.4). From this discussion a number of adaptive features will be identified for the craniofacial complex. These adaptive features will be associated with the evolution of derived features from the primitive hominid condition.

TABLE 5.4 ► List of Characters Used to Define the Nodes in Figure 5.11

Implied Primitive Condition of the Hominids

(1)

Torus intermediate development

(2)

Supraorbital intermediate thickness

(3)

Glabella intermediate swelling

(4)

Supraorbital sulcus absent

(5)

Temporal lines with strong anteromedial incursion

(6)

Sagittal crest in males developed

(7)

Temporal fossa size is large

(8)

Postorbital constriction is intermediate

(9)

Parietal usually no overlap at asterion

(10)

Parietal overlap when present is not extensive

(11)

Asterionic notch present

(12)

Compound temporal crest is present

(13)

Supraglenoid gutter of intermediate width

(14)

Mastoid reduced lateral inflation

(15)

Temporal squama pneumatization extensive

(16)

External cranial base is extended

(17)

Nuchal plane inclination steep

(18)

Anterior tympanic edge medial to porion

(19)

External auditory meatus is small

(20)

Articular tubercle is large

(21)

Petrous is sagittally orientated

(22)

Cranial base is intermediate in breadth

(23)

Basioccipital is long

(24)

Glenoid fossa is intermediate in depth

(25)

Glenoid fossa is large in size

(26)

Postglenoid process is large and unfused with tympanic

(27)

TMJ distanced from dental complex

(28)

Eustachion process prominent

(29)

Tympanic tubular in shape

(30)

Vaginal process of tympanic small

(31)

Digastric muscle insertion broad and shallow

(32)

Longus capitis insertion long and oval

(33)

Foramen magnum oval shaped

(34)

Basion posterior to bi-tympanic

(35)

Foramen magnum inclination inclined posterior

(36)

Cranial capacity <500 cm3

(37)

Cerebellar morphology with lateral flare and posterior

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