the describe tree option in PAUP (Swofford, 1998). When a character is stated as being "relatively narrower," "relatively deeper," etc., this is compared to the condition at the previous node, unless stated otherwise (see Table 5.4). From this discussion a number of adaptive features will be identified for the craniofacial complex. These adaptive features will be associated with the evolution of derived features from the primitive hominid condition.

TABLE 5.4 ► List of Characters Used to Define the Nodes in Figure 5.11

Implied Primitive Condition of the Hominids


Torus intermediate development


Supraorbital intermediate thickness


Glabella intermediate swelling


Supraorbital sulcus absent


Temporal lines with strong anteromedial incursion


Sagittal crest in males developed


Temporal fossa size is large


Postorbital constriction is intermediate


Parietal usually no overlap at asterion


Parietal overlap when present is not extensive


Asterionic notch present


Compound temporal crest is present


Supraglenoid gutter of intermediate width


Mastoid reduced lateral inflation


Temporal squama pneumatization extensive


External cranial base is extended


Nuchal plane inclination steep


Anterior tympanic edge medial to porion


External auditory meatus is small


Articular tubercle is large


Petrous is sagittally orientated


Cranial base is intermediate in breadth


Basioccipital is long


Glenoid fossa is intermediate in depth


Glenoid fossa is large in size


Postglenoid process is large and unfused with tympanic


TMJ distanced from dental complex


Eustachion process prominent


Tympanic tubular in shape


Vaginal process of tympanic small


Digastric muscle insertion broad and shallow


Longus capitis insertion long and oval


Foramen magnum oval shaped


Basion posterior to bi-tympanic


Foramen magnum inclination inclined posterior


Cranial capacity <500 cm3


Cerebellar morphology with lateral flare and posterior

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