External cranial base flexed (homoplasy)

Node 13:

(20) Articular tubercle is small (homoplasy)

(23) Bassioccipital is short (homoplasy)

(31) Digastric muscle insertion deep and narrow

(36) Cranial capacity increased, 509-675 cm3

(37) Cerebellar tucked (homoplasy)

(38) Occipitomarginal sinus low frequency

(47) Masseter origin is low (homoplasy)

(49) Subnasal angle is high (homoplasy) (54) Nasal bones not projected

(59) Malar near vertical orientation (homoplasy)

(61) Infraorbital foramen within upper 50% of malar height


(63) Nasal entrance stepped (homoplasy)

(74) Mandibular tori undeveloped

(75) Mandibular corpus is robust (homoplasy)

(79) Mandibular extramolar sulcus is narrow (homoplasy)

(84) Molars size intermediate

(85) Lingual cusps at margin — buccal cusps approaching internal (homoplasy)

(4) Supraorbital sulcus moderately developed (homoplasy)

(15) Temporal squama pneumatization reduced (homoplasy)

(26) Postglenoid process small and fused to tympanic

(27) TMJ reduced from dental complex

(46) Anterior zygomatic insertion at M1 (homoplasy)

(68) Nasal clivus is intermediate in length (homoplasy)

(78) Mental foramen hollow absent (homoplasy)

(24) Glenoid fossa is variable in depth

(30) Vaginal process of tympanic is large (homoplasy)

(36) Cranial capacity large, 750-1,100 cm3 (homoplasy)

(38) Occipitomarginal sinus intermediate frequency (homoplasy)

(48) Palate prognathism is weak

(57) Orbital fissure configuration is comma shaped (homoplasy)

(63) Nasal entrance smooth with overlap (homoplasy)

(64) Incisive canal developed (homoplasy)

(82) Male canines reduced (homoplasy)

(83) Upper premolar/molar size significantly different (homoplasy)

(84) Molars small (homoplasy)

(2) Supraorbital thick

(3) Glabella inflated (homoplasy)

(29) Tympanic tubular in shape (homoplasy)

(44) Upper facial breadth broad (homoplasy)

(50) Incisor prognathism within bi-canine line (homoplasy)

(60) Malar diagonal length is long (homoplasy) (70) Zygomatic insertion is low (homoplasy) (81) Upper incisor heteromorphy reduced

Node 14:

Node 15:

Apomorphic Condition of the Hominids

Kenyapithecus: (51) Anterior palate is shallow

(69) Maxillary sinus of intermediate development (homoplasy)

The Evolution of Hominin Craniofacial Morphology TABLE 5.4 ► Continued

(70) Zygomatic insertion is low (homoplasy)

(74) Mandibular inferior torus stronger (homoplasy) (77) Mental foramen opens anterosuperiorly

(88) Molar enamel thick

(90) M2 square

(12) Compound temporal crest is absent

(24) Glenoid fossa is deep

(26) Postglenoid process moderate and maybe fused/unfused to tympanic

(29) Tympanic crest with vertical plate

(40) Interorbital breadth broad (homoplasy)

(49) Subnasal angle is intermediate

(59) Malar convex (homoplasy)

(69) Maxillary sinus of intermediate development (homoplasy)

(71) Canine fossa is shallow (homoplasy)

(83) Upper premolar/molar size has marked difference

(88) Molar enamel thin

(89) Molar lingual cingulum developed

(91) Molar cusps and cristae well developed

(1) Tori moderately developed

(3) Glabella depressed

(4) Supraorbital with mid-sulcus

(40) Interorbital breadth broad (homoplasy)

(42) Lacrimal fossa within infraorbital region

(43) Mid-face strongly concave

(44) Upper facial breadth extremely broad (51) Anterior palate is deep (homoplasy) (53) Palate is broad

(55) Nasal keel present

(66) Orbital shape rectangular, broader than high (homoplasy)

(67) Inferior orbital margin well above superior nasal margin (homoplasy)

(70) Zygomatic insertion is low (homoplasy)

(71) Canine fossa is shallow (homoplasy)

(75) Mandibular corpus is robust

(76) Mandibular premolar orientation is V-shaped

(77) Mental foramen opens posteriorly

(83) Upper premolar/molar size significantly different

(84) Molars large

(86) P3 metaconid infrequent

(88) Molar enamel hyperthick

(1) Rimlike orbital tori

(3) Glabella cannot be defined

(40) Interorbital breadth narrow

(41) Frontal sinus absent

(43) Mid-face slightly concave

(44) Upper facial breadth narrow (47) Masseter origin is high

(51) Anterior palate is deep (homoplasy)

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