Malar Zygomatic Orientation

Emphasis is placed on the orientation of the zygomatic viewed laterally, whereas previously it was defined by the position of the inferior zygomatic (zygomaticoalveolar crest) relative to the inferior orbital margin (viewed laterally). Three conditions are defined. First, an anterior/posterior bend (= 0) defines Dryopithecus (Cameron, 1997a) and Gorilla. A near-vertical slope (= 1), is observed in Pongo, Kenyanthropus (M.G. Leakey et al., 2001), H. habilis (Tobias, 1991; B.A. Wood, 1991), the "1470 group,"

H. ergaster (B.A. Wood, 1991), and H. sapiens. The preserved inferior parts of the zygomatic in Kenyapithecus specimen KNM-FT 46 indicate that it too was most likely near vertical. Finally, there is an anterior slope from the region of the inferior orbital margin (= 2). This is observed in Pan, Australopithecus (Rak, 1983), and species of Paranthropus (Rak, 1983).

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