Maxillary Sinus

The same character states and allocations to taxa for the extant and Miocene hominids have also been taken straight from Begun et al. (1997). Intermediate development of the maxillary sinus (= 0) is observed in Kenyapithecus (Leakey, 1962; Andrews & Walker, 1976) and Dryopithecus (Begun, 1994a/b; Begun & G├╝lec, 1998). A large maxillary sinus (= 2) defines Pongo, Gorilla, Pan, Praeanthropus, Australopithecus P. robustus, P. boisei, K. rudolfensis, H. habilis, and H. ergaster (Tobias, 1967, 1991; Walker & Leakey, 1993a; Kimbel et al., 1997). Finally, H. sapiens is shown in the studies of Spoor & Zonneveld (1999) and Rae & Koppe (2000) as having a relatively similar maxillary sinus size compared to Gorilla and Pan, which also appears to be the case for the "anamensis group," which has a sinus system defined by a large anterior cavity and smaller middle cavity superior to M3 (C.V. Ward et al., 2001).

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