Supraorbital Torus Form

The condition in Dryopithecus (Begun, 1992, 1995; Moya-Sola & Kohler, 1993), Kenyanthropus (M.G. Leakey et al., 2001), Australopithecus (Rak, 1983), the "garhi group" (Asfaw et al., 1999), H. habilis (Tobias, 1991), K. rudolfensis, and H. ergaster (Wood, 1991) is developed laterally, but is weaker medially (= 0). The supraorbital torus in Graecopithecus specimen XIR-1 is developed, but not bridge-like; thus, it has a developed torus above each orbit (= 1) (de Bonis et al., 1990; de Bonis & Koufos, 1993; Dean & Delson, 1992; Cameron, 1997a). The torus region is rim-like in Pongo (= 2). Supraorbital torus form in Sahelanthropus is described as continuous and undivided (Brunet et al., 2002), though it appears to be very similar to the condition in Praeanthropus, species of Paranthropus, Gorilla, and Pan, because there is evidence of a medial depression (= 3) (Tobias, 1967; Rak, 1983; Kimbel et al., 1994). Thus, all of these taxa are allocated as having the same character state for this feature. The supraorbital in H. sapiens is undeveloped (= 4). Given the degree of variability of this feature, including within the outgroup, this character remains unordered in all analyses.

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