Temporal Squama Pneumatization

The primitive character state for this feature is for an extensively pneuma-tized temporal (Sherwood, 1999). As defined by both Strait et al. (1997) and Sherwood (1999), pneumatization of the temporal squama is associated with the development of pneumatic tracts extending to the squamosal suture, thickening the squamous temporal (squamous antrum). When squa-mous antrum is absent, the temporal bone is not considered pneumatized.

The temporal squama is inflated (= 0) in Dryopithecus (Kordos & Begun, 1997), Pongo, Gorilla, Pan, Sahelanthropus (Brunet et al., 2002), Ardipithecus, the "anamensis group," Praeanthropus, and P walkeri (Strait & Grine, 2001). While Skelton and McHenry (1992) considered Australopithecus (A. africanus) as being weakly pneumatized, Strait et al. (1997) and Strait and Grine (2001) consider the squama to be extensively inflated, which is the condition adopted here. The condition is variable within P boisei and K. rudolfensis (see B.A. Wood, 1991; M.G. Leakey et al., 2001;

partly Strait & Grine, 2001). Paranthropus robustus, H. habilis, H. ergaster, and H. sapiens are all defined by reduced pneumatization (B.A. Wood, 1991; Strait et al, 1997; Strait & Grine, 2001).

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