Upper Molar Lingual Cingulum Development

This feature, like the metaconid, is of phylogenetic interest as its presence/ absence appears to be of some phylogenetic importance, given its common presence in the earliest hominoids and its later reduction/absence in the later hominids/hominins. It is also of functional interest given that the cingulum may to some degree be associated with trying to increase the occlusal surface. Lingual cingulum is only weakly developed or absent (= 0) in Kenyapithecus (Leakey, 1962; Andrews & Walker, 1976; Cameron, 1998; Ward & Durren, 2002), Ankarapithecus (Andrews & Tekkaya, 1980), Graecopithecus (de Bonis et al., 1990; de Bonis & Koufos, 1993, 2001), Sahelanthropus (Brunet et al., 2002), Praeanthropus (T.D. White et al., 1983), P robustus (Tobias, 1967), K. rudolfensis (B. Brown et al., 1993), H. habilis (Tobias, 1991), Pongo, Gorilla, Pan, and H. sapiens. While no direct mention is made of cingulum in the discussion of Ardipithecus, White et al. (1994) state that the overall morphology of the teeth is very similar to Praeanthropus; thus, like this genus, it is considered to have extremely reduced or no lingual cingulum. Lingual cingulum is present (= 1) in Dryopithecus (Begun, 1994a) and Australopithecus (Tobias, 1967; T.D. White et al., 1983).

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