Contents

Prologue 1

1 In the Beginning: Hydrogen and the Big Bang 6

2 Hydrogen and the Unity of Matter: The Prout 12 Hypothesis

William Prout, 1815

3 Hydrogen and the Spectra of the Chemical Elements: 19 A Swiss High School Teacher Finds a Pattern

Johann Jakob Balmer, 1885

4 The Bohr Model of Hydrogen: A Paradigm for the 27 Structure of Atoms

Niels Bohr, 1913

5 Relativity Meets the Quantum in the Hydrogen Atom 43 Arnold Sommerfeld, 1916

6 The Fine-Structure Constant: A Strange Number 52 with Universal Significance

Arnold Sommerfeld, 1916

7 The Birth of Quantum Mechanics: The Hydrogen 59 Atom Answers the "Crucial Question "

Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli, 1925-26 • PaulDirac, 1925-26

8 The Hydrogen Atom: Midwife to the Birth of Wave 74 Mechanics

Erwin Schrödinger, 1926

9 The Hydrogen Atom and Dirac's Theory of the 87 Electron

Paul Dirac, 1928

10 Hydrogen Guides Nuclear Physicists: The Discovery of 96 Deuterium

Harold Urey, 1932

11 Hubris Meets Hydrogen: The Magnetic Moment of 103 the Proton

Otto Stern, 1933

12 The Magnetic Resonance Method: The Origin of 113 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

13 New Nuclear Forces Required: The Discovery of the 125 Quadrupole Moment of the Deuteron

Norman F. Ramsey and I. I. Rabi, 1939

14 Magnetic Resonance in Bulk Matter (NMR) 137 Edward M. Purcell and Felix Bloch, 1946

15 Hydrogen's Challenge to Dirac Theory: Quantum 150 Electrodynamics as the Prototype Physical Theory

Willis Lamb, 1947

16 The Hydrogen Atom Portends an Anomaly with the 161 Electron

I. I. Rabi, John E. Nafe, and Edward B. Nelson, 1946

17 Hydrogen Maps the Galaxy 171 Edward M. Purcell and Harold Ewen, 1951

18 The Hydrogen Maser: A High-Precision Clock 183 Norman F. Ramsey and Daniel Kleppner, 1960

19 The Rydberg Constant: A Fundamental Constant 197 Johannes Robert Rydberg, 1890 •

Theodor W. Hansch, 1992

20 The Abundance of Deuterium: A Check on Big Bang 211 Cosmology

David N. Schramm, 1945-1997

21 Antihydrogen: The First Antiatom 223

22 The Bose-Einstein Condensate for Hydrogen 234 Satyendranath Bose, 1924 • Albert Einstein, 1925 •

Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Wieman, 1995 • Daniel Kleppner and Tom Greytak, 1998

23 Exotic Hydrogen-like Atoms: From Theory to 242 Technology

Epilogue 253

Notes 257

Acknowledgments 271

Credits 273

Index 275

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