Atmospheric Structure

The vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere—that is, the relation of temperature and pressure to altitude—is determined partly by a complicated balance of several energy-transport mechanisms and partly by the way energy from the Sun is introduced into the atmosphere and lost by radiation to space.

Two factors control the vertical structure of the lower atmosphere—its composition of almost pure carbon dioxide and its content of large quantities of suspended dust. Because carbon dioxide radiates energy efficiently at Martian temperatures, the atmosphere can respond rapidly to changes in the amount of solar radiation received. The suspended dust absorbs large quantities of heat directly from sunlight and provides a distributed source of energy throughout the lower atmosphere.

Surface temperatures depend on latitude and fluctuate over a wide range from day to night. At the Viking 1 and Pathfinder landing sites (both about 20° N latitude), the temperatures at roughly human height above the surface regularly varied from a low near 189 K (-84 °C, or -119 °F) just before sunrise to a high of 240 K (-33 °C, or -28 °F) in the early afternoon. This temperature swing is much larger than that which occurs in desert regions on Earth. The variation is greatest very close to the ground and occurs because the thin, dry atmosphere allows the surface to radiate its heat quickly during the night. During dust storms this ability is impaired, and the temperature swing is reduced. Above altitudes of a few kilometres, the daily variation is damped out, but other oscillations appear throughout the atmosphere as a result of the direct input of solar energy. These temperature and pressure oscillations, sometimes called tides because they are regular, periodic, and synchronized with the position of the Sun, give the Martian atmosphere a very complex vertical structure.

The cooling of the atmosphere with altitude at a rate of 1.5 K per km continues upward to about 40 km (25 miles), at which level (called the tropopause) the temperature becomes a roughly constant 140 K (-130 °C, or -210 °F). This rate, measured by the Viking (and later Pathfinder) spacecraft as they descended through the atmosphere, was unexpectedly low; scientists had anticipated it to be near 5 K per km. This rate is significantly lower than that expected for clear air because of the large amount of suspended dust.

Above 100 km (60 miles), the structure of the atmosphere is determined by the tendency of the heavier molecules to concentrate below the lighter ones. This diffusive separation process overcomes the tendency of turbulence to mix all the constituents together. At these high altitudes, absorption of ultraviolet light from the Sun dissociates and ionizes the gases and leads to complex sequences of chemical reactions. The top of the atmosphere has an average temperature of about 300 K (27 °C, or 80 °F).

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