To the Earth-based telescopic observer, the Martian surface outside the polar caps is characterized by red-ochre-coloured bright areas on which dark markings appear superimposed. In the past, the bright areas were referred to as deserts, and the majority of large dark areas were originally called maria (Latin: "oceans" or "seas"; singular mare) in the belief that they were covered by expanses of water. No topography can be seen from Earth-based telescopes. What is observed are variations in the brightness of the surface or changes in the opacity of the atmosphere.
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