Scientists once thought that Mercury's richness in iron compared with the other terrestrial planets' could be explained by its accretion from objects made up of materials derived from the extremely hot inner region of the solar nebula, where only substances with high freezing temperatures could solidify. The more volatile elements and compounds would not have condensed so close to the Sun. Modern theories of the formation of the solar system, however, discount the possibility that an orderly process of accretion led to progressive detailed differences in planetary chemistry with distance from the Sun. Rather, the components of the bodies that accreted into Mercury likely were derived from a wide part of the inner solar system. Indeed, Mercury itself may have formed anywhere from the asteroid belt inward. Subsequent gravitational interactions among the many growing protoplanets could have moved Mercury around.
Some planetary scientists have suggested that during Mercury's early epochs, after it had already differentiated (chemically separated) into a less-dense crust and mantle of silicate rocks and a denser iron-rich core, a giant collision stripped away much of the planet's outer layers, leaving a body dominated by its core. This event would have been similar to the collision of a Mars-sized object with Earth that is thought to have formed the Moon.
Nevertheless, such violent, disorderly planetary beginnings would not necessarily have placed the inherently densest planet closest to the Sun. Other processes may have been primarily responsible for Mercury's high density. Perhaps the materials that eventually formed Mercury experienced a preferential sorting of heavier metallic particles from lighter silicate ones because of aerodynamic drag by the gaseous solar nebula. Perhaps, because of the planet's nearness to the hot early Sun, its silicates were preferentially vaporized and lost. Each of these scenarios predicts different bulk chemistries for Mercury. In addition, infalling asteroids, meteoroids, and comets and implantation of solar wind particles have been augmenting or modifying the surface and near-surface materials on Mercury for billions of years. Because these materials are the ones most readily analyzed by telescopes and spacecraft, the task of extrapolating backward in time to an understanding of ancient Mercury, and the processes that subsequently shaped it, is formidable.
Was this article helpful?