Ancient and medieval observations of eclipses are of the highest value for investigating long-term variations in the length of the day. Early investigators such as the English astronomer Edmond Halley deduced from eclipse observations that the Moon's motion was subject to an acceleration. However, not until 1939 was it conclusively demonstrated (by the British astronomer Harold Spencer Jones) that only part of this acceleration was real. The remainder was apparent and was a consequence of the practice of measuring time relative to a nonuniform unit, namely, the rotation of Earth. Time determined in this way is termed Universal Time. For astronomical purposes, it is preferable to utilize an invariant time frame such as Terrestrial Time (the modern successor to Ephemeris Time)—defined by the motion of the Sun, Moon, and planets.
Lunar and solar tidal friction, occurring especially in the seas and oceans of Earth, is now known to be responsible for a gradual decrease in the terrestrial rate of rotation. Apart from slowing down Earth's rotation, lunar tides produce a reciprocal effect on the Moon's motion, causing a gradual increase in the mean distance of the Moon from Earth (at about 3.8 cm [1.5 inches] per year) and a consequent real retardation of its motion. Hence, the length of the month is slowly increasing (at about 0.04 sec in a century).
These changes in the Moon's orbit can now be accurately fixed by lunar laser ranging, and it seems likely that they have proceeded at an essentially constant rate for many centuries. The history of Earth's rotation, however, is complicated by effects of nontidal origin, and in order to obtain maximum information it is necessary to utilize both modern and ancient observations. Telescopic observations reveal fluctuations in the length of the day on timescales of several decades, and these fluctuations are mainly attributed to interactions between the fluid core of Earth and the surrounding solid mantle. Ancient and medieval observations also suggest the presence of longer-term variations, which could be produced by alterations in the moment of inertia of Earth resulting from both the ongoing rise of land that was glaciated during the Pleistocene Ice Age (which ended around 10,000 years ago) and the sea-level changes associated with the freezing and melting of polar ice.
Records of large solar eclipses preserved in literary and historical works have made an important contribution to the study of past variations in Earth's rate of rotation. In recent years, major advances have also come from the analysis of timings of lunar and solar eclipses by ancient Babylonian and medieval Chinese and Arab astronomers. Although many Babylonian texts are fragmentary, about 120 usable timings of eclipse contacts are accessible (including measurements at different phases of the same eclipse).
These observations date primarily from between about 700 and 50 BCE. By comparison, only a handful of similar Greek measurements are preserved, and these are less precise. Approximately 80 eclipse timings by Chinese astronomers are preserved in Chinese history. These are from two main periods: between 400 and 600 CE and later from 1000 to 1300 CE. In addition, almost 50 measurements of eclipse times by medieval Arab astronomers are extant; these date from between about 800 and 1000 CE and are mainly contained in the Hakemite Tables compiled by Ibn Yunus about 1005 CE. Unfortunately, there are very few timings between 50 BCE and 400 CE and again from 600 to 800 CE.
Tidal computations indicate a steady increase in the length of the mean solar day by about sec every millennium. Nontidal causes produce smaller effects, generally in opposition to the main trend. Although the rate of change in the length of the day is minute, the loss of energy by Earth is huge. In measuring changes in Earth's rate of spin, the long timescale covered by ancient observations is an important asset. Approximately one million days, each marginally shorter than at present, have elapsed since the earliest reliable eclipse observations were made, about 700 BCE. The contribution of individual small increments is summative. As a result, present-day computations of ancient eclipses that make no allowance for any increase in the length of the day may be as much as five or six hours ahead of the observed time of occurrence. In the case of total solar eclipses, the path of the Moon's shadow across Earth's surface may appear to be displaced by thousands of kilometres.
The technique of using ancient observations to investigate changes in the rate of Earth's rotation is well illustrated by a total solar eclipse observed by Babylonian astronomers on a date corresponding to April 15, 136 BCE. This event is recorded on two damaged tablets, a composite translation of which follows:
At 24 degrees after sunrise, there was a solar eclipse beginning on the southwest side. After 18 degrees it became total such that there was complete night. Venus, Mercury, and the normal stars were visible. Jupiter and Mars, which were in their period of disappearance, were visible in that eclipse. [The shadow] moved from southwest to northeast. [Time interval of] 35 degrees for obscuration and clearing up.
This is an exceptionally fine account of a total solar eclipse and is by far the best preserved from the ancient world. The Babylonians were able to detect a number of stars, as well as four planets, during the few minutes of darkness. Modern calculations confirm that Jupiter and Mars were too near the Sun to be observed under normal circumstances; Jupiter was very close to the solar disk.
As noted above, time intervals were expressed by the Babylonians in degrees, each equivalent to 4 minutes of time. Hence, the eclipse is recorded as beginning 96 minutes after sunrise (or about 7:10 am), becoming total 72 minutes later and lasting from start to finish for 140 minutes. Computations that make no allowance for changes in the length of the day displace the track of totality far to the west and imply that this eclipse was barely visible at Babylon, with as little as 15 percent of the Sun being covered. Furthermore, the computed time of onset is around noon rather than in the early morning—a difference of 3.4 hours. In order to best comply with the record, it is necessary to assume that the length of the day has increased by about %o sec in the intervening two millennia or so.
Numerous eclipses of both the Sun and the Moon were timed by the Babylonian astronomers with similar care, and analysis of the available records closely confirms the above result for the change in the length of the day. Although the timing device used is likely to have been of low precision, many eclipse observations were made fairly close to the reference moments of sunrise or sunset. For these the measured intervals would be so short that clock errors may be presumed to be small.
The many Arab and Chinese observations of both lunar and solar eclipses during the Middle Ages enable further variations in Earth's spin to be traced. The following observations of the lunar eclipse of Sept. 17, 1019 CE, made by al-Blrunl at Ghazna attest to the quality of some of these more recent data:
When I observed it, the altitude of Capella [Alpha Aurigae] above the eastern horizon was slightly less than 60 degrees when the cut at the edge of the Full Moon had become visible; the altitude of Sirius [Alpha Canis Majoris] was [then] 17 degrees, that of Procyon [Alpha Canis Minoris] was 22 degrees and that of Aldebaran [Alpha Tauri] was 63 degrees, where all altitudes are measured from the eastern horizon.
All four stellar measurements are in agreement that the eclipse began at around 2:15 am, but calculations that make no allowance for any change in the length of the day indicate a time approximately 0.5 hour later. Observations such as these reveal that around 1000 CE the length of the day was about %5 sec shorter than at present.
Combining the various results obtained from analysis of ancient and medieval data, it is possible to show that over the last 2,700 years the rate of increase in the length of the day has varied markedly. This emphasizes the importance of nontidal effects in producing changes in the rate of Earth's rotation period. In sum, the history of Earth's rotation is extremely complex.
Glowering as a conspicuous red object in the night sky is Mars, the fourth planet in the solar system. Mars is designated by the symbol C and is the seventh largest planet in size and mass in the solar system.
Sometimes called the Red Planet, Mars has long been associated with warfare and slaughter. It is named for the Roman god of war. As long as 3,000 years ago, Babylonian astronomer-astrologers called the planet Nergal for their god of death and pestilence. The planet's two moons, Phobos (Greek: "Fear") and Deimos ("Terror"), were named for two of the sons of Ares and Aphrodite (the counterparts of Mars and Venus, respectively, in Greek mythology).
In recent times Mars has intrigued people for more substantial reasons than its baleful appearance. The planet is the second closest to Earth, after Venus, and it is usually easy to observe in the night sky because its orbit lies outside Earth's. It is also the only planet whose solid surface and atmospheric phenomena can be seen in telescopes from Earth. Centuries of assiduous studies by earthbound observers, extended by spacecraft observations since the 1960s, have revealed that Mars is similar to Earth in many ways. Like Earth, Mars has clouds, winds, a roughly 24-hour day, seasonal weather patterns, polar ice caps, volcanoes, canyons, and other familiar features. There are intriguing clues that billions of years ago Mars was even more Earthlike than today, with a denser, warmer atmosphere and much more water—rivers, lakes,
Mars (Tharsis side), in a composite of images taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft in April 1999. The northern polar cap and encircling dark dune field of Vastitas Borealis are visible at the top of the globe. NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems flood channels, and perhaps oceans. By all indications Mars is now a sterile frozen desert, but close-up images of seemingly water-eroded gullies suggest that at least small amounts of water may have flowed on or near the planet's surface in geologically recent times and may still exist as a liquid in protected areas below the surface. The presence of water on Mars is considered a critical issue because without water life as it is presently understood cannot exist. If microscopic life-forms ever did originate on Mars, there remains a chance, albeit a remote one, that they may yet survive in these hidden watery niches. In 1996 a team of scientists reported what they concluded to be evidence for ancient microbial life in a piece of meteorite that had come from Mars, but most scientists have disputed their interpretation.
Since at least the end of the 19th century, Mars has been considered the most hospitable place in the solar system beyond Earth both for indigenous life and for human exploration and habitation. At that time, speculation was rife that the so-called canals of Mars—complex systems of long, straight surface lines that very few astronomers had claimed to see in telescopic observations—were the creations of intelligent beings. Seasonal changes in the planet's appearance, attributed to the spread and retreat of vegetation, added further to the purported evidence for biological activity. Although the canals later proved to be illusory and the seasonal changes geologic rather than biological, scientific and public interest in the possibility of Martian life and in exploration of the planet has not faded.
During the past century Mars has taken on a special place in popular culture. It has served as inspiration for generations of fiction writers from H.G. Wells and Edgar Rice Burroughs in the heyday of the Martian canals to Ray Bradbury in the 1950s and Kim Stanley Robinson in the '90s. Mars has also been a central theme in radio, television, and film, perhaps the most notorious case being Orson Welles's radio-play production of H.G. Wells's novel War of the Worlds, which convinced thousands of unwitting listeners on the evening of Oct. 30, 1938, that beings from Mars were invading Earth. The planet's mystique and many real mysteries remain a stimulus to both scientific inquiry and human imagination to this day.
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