Valleys and Lakes

Most of the ancient cratered terrain is dissected by networks of dry valleys, mostly 1-2 km (0.6-1.2 miles) across and up to 2,000 km (1,200 miles) long. In outline they resemble terrestrial river systems. The valleys almost certainly formed by slow erosion of running water. Many local lowlands have a valley entering and a valley leaving, indicating that the lowland formerly contained a lake. Layered deposits, possibly deposited in lakes, commonly underlie these areas, and deltas are commonly observed where valleys enter the lowlands. Valley networks are rare, although not absent, in the younger, more sparsely cratered areas. Discovery of the valleys in the 1970s was a surprise because of the difficulty of having liquid water at the surface under present conditions. Their common presence in the heavily cratered terrain is another indicator that conditions on early Mars were much warmer and wetter than they are today.

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