Zond missions

Soviet

Zond 3 was designed to fly to Mars in the 1964 launch window, which would certainly have panicked the Americans even more than they were. Instead, Zond 3 repeated in 1965 the flight of Luna 3, taking photos of both sides of the Moon. Zond 5, in 1968, was the first lunar flyby with an Earth return; previous missions all remained in space. Zond 5 carried turtles and returned them to Earth. Zond 7 and Zond 8 were flyby missions in 1970 and took photographs that were the best photos of the far side until the American Clementine mission in 1994.

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