Richard Engeman Bernice Constantin Scott Hardin Henry Smith and Walter E Meshaka Jr

1USDA APHIS Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Ctr, 4101 LaPorte Ave., Fort Collins, Colorado 80521-2154, USA 2USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, 2820 East University Ave., Gainesville, Florida 32641, USA 3Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 620 South Meridian Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32399, USA 4Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Park Service, 13798 S.E. Federal Highway, Hobe Sound Florida 33455, USA 5Florida Atlantic University, Wilkes Honors...

Materials and Method

The experimental materials were collected from a eutrophic lake (Nanhu Lake, E 114 21.198, N30 33.118) in Wuhan, China. After removing the mud and epiphyte by washing with 0.5 sodium hypochlorite solution, a few ramets developing from the single clone were selected for pre-incubation, and the growth medium was adapted from one-fourth of Hoagland nutritious solution. Plant materials propagated vegetatively through a few generations in the green house of Wuhan University, to avoid the ramets from...

Capture Process

Traps employed to catch crustaceans are usually set before sunset and collected after dawn, so that the time they spend in the fishing ground (soaking time) coincides with the active phase of the target species. Swimming crabs are mostly nocturnal, though they also show short periods of activity during the day, and as a result have to rely mostly on their senses of smell and taste to find food or prey. The capture process of an aquatic animal approaching a trap has been summarized as consisting...

Changes in Microclimate

By changing the vegetation structure, invasive species can influence microclimate. For instance, the higher litter decomposition rate in New Zealand podocarp forest invaded by Tradescantia fluminensis was attributed to the wetter microclimate in dense mats of the invasive species (Standish et al., 2004). Similarly, in Australian dunes invaded by Chrysanthemoides monilifera litter decomposed faster under the invasive plant than under the native vegetation probably because Chrysanthemoides...

Invasive Species Detection Impact and Control

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Results and Discussion

The wetland plant spectra displayed a range of JM distance values. Table 2 displays the JM distance values for all the plant spectra in a matrix against the invasive species 23 . According to the JM values, Heteranthera dubia (water star-grass) and Lythrum salicaria are relatively easy to separate with the highest JM value of 1.2645. Heteranthera dubia has the highest separability from most of the invasives compared to the other species collected (Table 2). The invasive with the lowest...

References

Av ar, N. and Yanko, V., 1995, Taxonomy of benthic foraminifera of Iskenderun Bay.Annual Report Avicenne (AVI CT92-0007) Benthic foraminifera as indicator of heavy metal pollution - A new kind of biological monitoring for the Mediterranean Sea. 233-247. Av ar, N., 1997, Foraminifera of the Eastern Mediterranean Costline. Q. . Yerbilimleri (Geoosound), 31, 67-81, Adana. Av ar, N., Meri , E. & Ergin, M., 2001. iskenderun K rfezi bentojenik sedimentlerinin foraminifer i erigi. H. ....

Stephan G Bullard and Mary R Carman

'University of Hartford, Hillyer College, West Hartford, CT 06117, USA 2Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA Ascidians are common members of benthic marine communities. Due to their strong competitive abilities and their simple trophic requirements ascidians are highly invasive. Because they only need a hard surface for attachment and abundant particulate food to flourish, ascidians are easily introduced to new locations and can readily persist once established....

Introduction

Invasive plants negatively impact wildlands by decreasing biodiversity, reducing production, displacing native species, degrading systems, and altering ecosystem functions and processes (DiTomaso 2000 Masters and Sheley 2001 Davies and Svejcar IN PRESS). Invasive species are the second leading threat to biodiversity after habitat destruction (Wittenberg and Cock 2001 Randall 1996 Pimm and Gilpin 1989). The negative impacts of invasive plants are a product of their ability to out-compete native...

Invasion History

Human-mediated transport of invasive marine species, including ascidians, has been occurring for centuries (Carlton & Hodder 1995, Carlton 2003). The rate of non-native species introductions greatly increased during the 20th century with the dramatic increase in marine travel and the globalization of world economies (Cohen & Carlton 1998). Within the last thirty years, ascidians have invaded numerous habitats worldwide, often with severe consequences. Every continent except Antarctica has...

Impact of Fallopia on Soil Fauna

Many invasive plants have been shown to modify the structure of soil fauna and microflora communities (Wardle et al., 1995 Belnap & Philips, 2001 Kourtev et al., 2002 Standish et al., 2004 Herrera & Dudley, 2003 Ernst and Cappuccino, 2005 Li et al., 2006 ). In our study, the total number of individuals under Fallopia japonica canopy was 50 lower (p< 0.05) than in the uninvaded adjacent vegetation. These results are in agreement with those of Gerber et al. (2008) who studied the impact...

Ecological and Economic Impacts

Invasive ascidians have significant impacts on marine communities, aquaculture and human economies. Ecologically, they can alter biodiversity and species richness and affect the growth and survivorship of aquacultured organisms. Economic impacts of invasive ascidians can be severe and at times may threaten aquaculture industries. Despite these problems, invasive ascidians occasionally provide ecological or economic benefits. Invasive ascidians greatly affect community ecology. Due to their...

Trap Design and Crab Behavior

After talking about the detection and approach stages of the capture process in trap fisheries we will proceed to examine what happens to a crab after it reaches the trap. Several studies have documented how trap design affects capture efficiency. Crabs normally crawl along the sea bottom until they encounter an odor trail emanating from a baited trap. After smelling the bait they will follow the trail upstream searching for the source. By zigzagging across this trail and sampling the odor...

Reproductive Capability of Spartina Alterniflora

Seed dispersal is one of modes with which Spartina alterniflora population colonized new habitats (Richards et al., 2004 Davis, 2005). The maximal number of grain per inflorescence was 665 (Fang et al., 2004). After shedding at autumn, seeds of S. alterniflora keep dormancy to spring of second year and the maximal germination rate is over 90 (Qin et al., 1985). Dormancy mechanism will be favor of seed survival through the severe winter, and companying with temperature rise and rainfall...

Discussion

The invasive species situation in Florida is severe, and when one considers the climatic, demographic, and environment situation in Florida, the severity of the problem is even greater than at first glance. The breadth of invasive land animals in Florida that arguably merit eradication, or at least control, is extensive. The list is extremely varied and includes animals ranging from unusual species of distant origins to more recognizable invaders brought in from other states in the U.S., as...

Feral Cats

The FWC estimates there are between 6.3 and 9.6 million feral cats Felis catus in Florida at http www.floridaconservation.org , which, conservatively, kill millions of small animals in Florida each year FCIT 2003 . Feral cats are generally harmful to native fauna throughout the state, because even cats well-maintained as pets take a high toll of nearby small animals Churcher and Lawton 1987, Lepcyzk et al. 2003, Woods et al. 2003 , especially considering cats continue to hunt and kill when not...

Plant Community Resistance

The spread of invasive plant species across wildlands is dependent not only on the spatial dispersal of its propagules, but also whether or not these propagules can become established in existing plant communities. Discussions of prevention or any other approaches to invasive plant management are of little consequence if the invasive plant species is dispersing to an environment unsuitable for its survival. Thus, the present discussion focuses on environments that the invasive plant species can...

Prevention Removal Treatments and Mitigation Efforts

A variety of mitigation techniques are available to help control invasive ascidians. Preventative measures that keep surfaces free of ascidians e.g., antifouling paints, air drying, mechanical scraping, etc may be most useful because they limit the spread of ascidians. Once invasive ascidians become established in a new location they can be almost impossible to eradicate. Various physical and chemical treatments are used to remove ascidians from substrates, but most fouling control methods are...

The Ecological Superiority for Successful Invasion

The ability of this species to trap large volumes of tidal sediments led to its deliberate introduction in several parts of the world North Europe, Australia, New Zealand, China in conjunction with land reclamation. However, the rapid expansion of the invasive species is now considered to be a threat to coastal environments Daehler amp Strong, 1996 Ayres et al., 2004 Chen et al., 2004 . S. alterniflora have become model organisms for studying biological invasions from both ecological and...

Purple Swamphen

Relatively few non-native bird species have become established in Florida Hardin 2007 , as only about 5 of the roughly 200 non-native species introduced have succeeded at becoming established Avery 2007 . The purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio , a recent introduction to Florida, was judged to merit eradication by a consensus of land management agencies based on its increasing population and range expansion, its potential impact to native species, and the potential for an eradication effort to...

Nile Monitor Lizards

Many exotic arrivals to Florida do not appear in the public conscientiousness. For example, the mainstream public is typically unaware that the number of non-native lizard species breeding in Florida now exceeds the number of native species, with over three times as many exotic species as native in south Florida Hardin 2007 , and many of the exotic lizard species can eat various life stages of other lizards Meshaka et al. 2004 . Nonetheless, problems with several large lizard species recently...

Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg

The genus Amphisorus belongs to a family of calcareous larger foraminifera, Soritidae Ehrenberg 1839 , whose members are common in shallow tropical and subtropical waters. Fossil samples of Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg were found in Creteceous rocks Ehrenberg. 1839 and 1840 . Today, it shows a wide range of distribution in the Indo-Pacific and abundantly found in the Gulf of Aqabe to the north of the Red Sea Reiss and Hottinger, 1984 Haunold et al., 1998 . The benthic foraminifer A....

Northern Curlytail Lizards

The northern curlytail lizard Leiocephalus carinatus armouri is endemic to the islands of the Little Bahama Bank, with other subspecies found in the Great Bahama Bank, Cayman Islands, and Cuba Schwartz and Thomas 1975, Schwartz and Henderson 1991 . A small colony established in Palm Beach County through the intentional release of 20 pairs in the 1940s has spread widely Duellman and Schwartz 1958 . Prior to 1968, the range for this population had been expanding north and south along the Atlantic...

Gambian Giant Pouched Rats

The Gambian giant pouched rat Cricetomys gambianus in the Florida Keys is an example of how a severe invasive species threat can be managed in a logical, practical and efficient manner, once a threat has been identified. This largest of rat species up to 2.8 kg Rosevear 1969 is highly prolific and holds potential for extreme ecological and agricultural negative impacts Perry et al. 2006, Engeman et al. 2006 . Although the species escaped from a captive breeder on Grassy Key around 1999, it was...

Conclusion

There is still considerable room for improving current baiting practices. By applying the findings of chemoreception research, the effectiveness of conventional fish baits could be almost doubled with the simple addition of small sections of sugarcane. The selectivity potential of the bait was also demonstrated by adding sugar to the fish mince teabags, which maintained the catches of P. pelagicus but reduced those of other crab species. In the future, determining the taste preferences of the...

Mechanisms of Invasive Plant Impact on Soil Properties

The mechanisms implied in these soil properties modifications are probably diverse and are not completely understood. However, our data allow us to formulate some hypotheses. The biomass production of all studied plants was always higher than that of the resident vegetation Dassonville et al., 2008 . Higher biomass was achieved either by larger shoots and faster growth rate F. japonica, I. glandulifera, S. gigantea or by increased ground cover compared to the resident vegetation S. inaequidens...

Feral Swine

Who let the hogs out In Florida, it originally was the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto about a half millennium ago in 1539 who introduced feral swine Sus scrofa to Florida Towne and Wentworth 1950 , and many additional introductions have followed since. This species has the greatest reproductive potential of all free-ranging large mammals in the United States Wood and Barrett 1979 Hellgren 1999 , which combined with a general absence of large predators over much of their range results in...

Ciona Intestinalis Mussel

Mussel Cultures Fouling Styela Clava

Ascidians can grow in a variety of forms ranging from purely solitary individuals to true colonies Ruppert amp Barnes 1996 . All types of ascidians may be invasive, but the characteristics of their invasions differ. Invasive solitary species grow in dense monospecific aggregations e.g., Bourque et al. 2003, Blum et al. 2007, LeBlanc et al. 2007, Figures 1, 2 amp 3 . Because each individual holds a significant amount of water inside its body, stands of solitary individuals can possess tremendous...

Solidago Gigantea

Phosphorus Fractions Different Soils

As reported in Dassonville et al. 2008 , the main impact of Solidago gigantea was on soil P. In most studied sites, P availability increased consecutively to invasion. Nutrient uplift is not the mechanism responsible for this increased as the rooting depth is comparable in both invasive and resident vegetation Herr et al., 2007 . In order to understand the mechanisms affecting P availability, we examined seasonal variation of labile inorganic and organic P fractions, microbial P, and...

Burmese Pythons

The Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus is another large exotic carnivore entrenched in Florida Meshaka et al. 2000 . The pathway to invasion for this species has been largely attributed to illegal pet releases e.g., Snow et al. 2006 . However, the highly destructive impacts from Hurricane Andrew in 1992 included the release of many animals from captive breeding and holding facilities. Recent genetic results showing little differentiation among pythons captured in south Florida are...

The Invasibility of Native Ecosystem as a Necessary Condition of Spartina Alterniflora Invasion

Before the invasion of Spartina, there are few plant species distributed in the tidal zone for the severely physical condition. Thus, S. alterniflora, as a pioneer species of community succession, occupies an empty niche at the early stage of invasion Chung et al., 2004 . After successful establishment, the populations have a chance to rapid expansion. Such as in China, all of 90 foreshore of Jiangsu Province is silty, and the total area is 6,533 km2. Previous of Spartina introduced, plants...

Kudzu Defoliation

Although there is no controversy regarding the invasiveness of kudzu, recognition of the forage value of this species is still important. With the increasing cost of available approaches of kudzu control and the tremendous resilience of established populations, generating some returns from grazing at appropriate seasons and extents to deplete root reserves may allow greater progress in control of a continuing invasion. Currently available approaches to control, and eventually eradicate, this...

Vectors of Ascidian Introductions

Styela Clava Larvae

Numerous vectors facilitate the introduction, movement and spread of invasive ascidians. Due to the short-lived nature of ascidian larvae, most introductions likely occur when viable juveniles, adults or colony fragments are transported to new habitats. The most commonly cited transport mechanisms include shipping vectors i.e., hull fouling and ballast water and the movement of ascidians with aquaculture organisms and equipment a more recently identified transport vector is the movement of...

The Lizard

The black spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura similis on Gasparilla Island is an example of an exotic lizard species Meshaka et al. 2004 where control was initiated at the behest of affected residents. Also known as ctenosaurs, these large lizards became established on this 11 km-long barrier island along Florida's west coast with an introduction of as few as three individuals around 30 - 35 years ago Krysko et al. 2003 . Since then, the ctenosaur population has saturated the terrestrial habitats on...

Luring the Crab to the Trap

Crab Antennules

Many fishers use fish of no commercial value or trash fish as bait, but animal byproducts such as viscera, skin or heads, salted or dried fish, smoked cormorant, frogs, chicken offal and many other things can be used as well. Commercial trap fishers usually prefer to use frozen fish bait, like mackerel or sardine, because from past experience they know that to have a good catch they need high quality bait. Some studies have examined the active ingredients found in bait that are responsible for...

Limiting Spatial Dispersal

Invasive plant propagules most often seeds create new infestations by being spatially dispersed to new areas. Limiting the spatial dispersal of invasive plants can greatly improve prevention success Davies and Sheley 2007a . If invasive plants do not have propagules present at a site or are unable to disperse propagules to the site, invasion will not occur. Furthermore, the likelihood of invasion is significantly less with decreasing propagule pressure D'Antonio et al. 2001 Davies 2008 Davies...

Sericea Lespedeza

Sericea lespedeza presents quite a paradox. It has long been, and continues to be, acclaimed as a highly valuable erosion control and reclamation plant. It has recently become widely recognized as an invasive weedy species, while also being considered an underutilized forage plant. In contrast to kudzu, seed of sericea lespedeza continues to be commercially marketed and rather widely recommended for continued planting in the southeastern U.S. Agronomically, sericea lespedeza is recognized as...

Alien Foraminifera in the Mediterranean

Invasion of the Mediterranean Sea by alien species is getting increasingly prominent every day. These alien species are probably transported in with ballast waters or by attaching themselves onto vessels. Furthermore, many species have been brought into the Mediterranean for aquaculture purposes or inadvertantly introduced from public aquariums. But, most of the alien taxa recorded in the Mediterranean are originated from Indo-Pacific, indicating that the Suez Canal is considered to be the...

Amphistegina lobifera Larsen

Amphistegina Lobifera

The most abundant of the alien foraminifer species in the Mediterranean Sea is Amphistegina lobifera Larsen. It shows a wide distribution range in the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Oceans Langer and Hottinger, 2000 , also abundantly recorded in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, Israel Langer and Hottinger, 2000 Hyams et al., 2002 , Lebanon Moncharmont Zei, 1968 Greece Cherif, 1970 Hollaus and Hottinger, 1997 and Turkey Avsar, 1997 Meric et al., 2002, 2004a . In Israel, Amphistegina lobifera is the...

The invasive patterns of Spartina Alterniflora

All of invasive species are introduced by chance or deliberately into a region or country by human being. However, the fates of invasive species vary with different invasive pattern and passages. In the last two hundred years, S. alterniflora was introduced many countries in the world, and its distribution has expanded from Atlantic coast of America to Europe, western coast of North America, New Zealand and coast of China Baumel et al., 2001 . In England, S. alterniflora was introduced by...