Alien Foraminifera in the Mediterranean

Invasion of the Mediterranean Sea by alien species is getting increasingly prominent every day. These alien species are probably transported in with ballast waters or by attaching themselves onto vessels. Furthermore, many species have been brought into the Mediterranean for aquaculture purposes or inadvertantly introduced from public aquariums. But, most of the alien taxa recorded in the Mediterranean are originated from Indo-Pacific, indicating that the Suez Canal is considered to be the major vector in introducing alien species into the Levantine Basin. More than five hundered alien species have been recorded so far and each year new arrivals are reported (Galil, 2008). Alien invasion is considered to be a major problem worldwide, especially if the native coastal ecosystems are polluted and disturbed by the anthropogenic activities, such as observed in the Mediterranean. The aliens can deplete food sources, change the habitat structure and environmental conditions, in which the native species cannot survive. However, the aliens with an economical value constitute an important portion of the fisheries in the Eastern Mediterranean.

The macroscopic aliens, such as algae, fishes, crustaceans and molluscs have been well studied, but until recently, very little attention has been paid to the microscopic ones, such as foraminifers. In a recent study, 34 genera and 45 species of foraminifera reported from the Mediterranean basin (Zenetos et al., 2008) (PLATES 1-5). Some of these alien foraminifer species are found in large quantities, locally more abundant than the native ones, but the

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plate 1

plate 1

Mediterranean Foraminifera

1. Haddonia sp. Side view, x 11.5, Kekova-Antalya, Station 84/20 m.

2. Haddonia sp. Side view, x 13, Kas-Antalya, Station 86/15 m.

3. Haddonia sp. Side view, x 11.8, Kekova-Antalya, Station 91/24 m

4. Edentostomina cultrata (Brady). Side view, x 46, Marmaris Bay, Station 7/29.9 m.

5. Edentostomina cultrata (Brady). Side view, x 29, Marmaris Bay, Station 7/29.9 m.

6. Clavulina angularis d'Orbigny. Side view, x 23.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 131/12 m.

7. Clavulina angularis d'Orbigny. Side view, x 26, Kalkan-Antalya, Station 18/6 m.

8. Clavulina cf. C. multicamerata Chapman. Side view, x 12.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 50/14 m.

9. Clavulina cf. C. multicamerata Chapman. Side view, x 15.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 34/13 m.

10. Nodopthalmidium antillarum (Cushman). Side view, x 28, Gulf of Iskenderun, Station 95/22 m.

11. Nodopthalmidium antillarum (Cushman). Side view, x 135, Gulf of Iskenderun, Station 95/22 m.

12. Spiroloculina cf. S. angulata d'Orbigny.Side view, x 30.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 88/5 m.

13. Spiroloculina cf. S. angulata d'Orbigny. Side view, x 21.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 97/12 m.

14. Spiroloculina antillarum d'Orbigny. Side view, x 45, Ucadalar-Antalya, Station 127/21 m.

15. Spiroloculina antillarum d'Orbigny. Side view, x 29, Kas-Antalya, Station 131/12 m.

16. Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis (Brady). Side view, x 31, Kas-Antalya, Station 84/3 m.

17. Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis (Brady). Side view, x 26, Kas-Antalya, Station 42/9 m.

majority of them are rare represented by 1 to 10 individuals per gram sediment. The rarely observed genera and species are Iridia diaphana HERON-ALLEN & EARLAND, Haddonia sp., Edentostomina cultrata (BRADY), Clavulina angularis d'ORBIGNY, C. cf. multicamerata CHAPMAN, Nodopthalmidium antillarum (CUSHMAN), Agglutinella arenata (SAID), A. compressa EL-NAKHAL, A. robusta EL-NAKHAL, A. soriformis EL-NAKHAL, Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis (BRADY), Quinqueloculina cf. mosharrafai SAID, Miliolinella cf. hybrida (TERQUEM), Pseudomassilina reticulata (HERON-ALLEN & EARLAND), Pyrgo denticulata (BRADY), Triloculina cf. fichteliana d'ORBIGNY,

Articulina alticostata CUSHMAN, Cyclorbiculina compressa (d'ORBIGNY), Peneroplis antillarum d'ORBIGNY, Borelis sp., Pyramidulina catesbyi (d'ORBIGNY), P. perversa (SCHWAGER), Astacolus insolithus (SCHWAGER), A. sublegumen (PARR), Favulina melosquamosa (McCULLOCH), Cushmanina striatopunctata (PARKER & JONES), Entosigmomorphina sp., Pulleniatina obliquiloculata (PARKER & JONES), Euuvigerina sp., Cymbaloporetta plana (CUSHMAN), C. squammosa (d'ORBIGNY), Acervulina inhaerens SCHULTZE, Planogypsina acervalis (BRADY), P. squamiformis (CHAPMAN), Amphistegina lessonii d'ORBIGNY, A. madagascariensis (d'ORBIGNY), Planorbulinella larvata (PARKER & JONES), Elphidium cf. charlottense (VELLA) E. striatopunctatum (FICHTEL & MOLL), Heterocyclina tuberculata (MOBIUS), Operculina ammonoides (GRONOVIUS).

plate 2

plate 2

Operculina

1. Hauerina diversa Cushman. Side view, x 29, Kas-Antalya, Station 97/12 m.

2. Hauerina diversa Cushman. a, side view, x 23 and b, detail view of the aperture, x 112, Kas-Antalya,

Station 97/12 m.

3. Hauerina diversa Cushman. Edge and apertural view, x 53, Kas-Antalya, Station 97/12 m.

4. Quinqueloculina cf. Q. mosharrafai Said. Side view, x 22, Kas-Antalya, Station 81/12 m.

5. Miliolinella cf. M. hybrida (Terquem). Side view, x 26, Kas-Antalya, Station 81/24 m.

6. Pseudomassilina reticulata (Heron-Allen and Earland). Side view, x 35, Kalkan-Antalya, Station 18/6 m.

7. Pyrgo denticulata (Brady). Side view, x 21, Kas-Antalya, Station 81/15 m.

8. Triloculina cf. T. fichteliana d'Orbigny. Side view, x 54, Kas-Antalya, Station 78/24 m.

9. Triloculina cf. T. fichteliana d'Orbigny. Side view, x 54, Kas-Antalya, Station 78/24 m.

10. Articulina alticostata Cushman. Side view, x 19.5, Gulf of Iskenderun, Station 5/27 m.

11. Articulina alticostata Cushman. Side view, x 34.5, Gulf of Datja, Station 4/40 m.

12. Peneroplis arietinus (Batsch). Juvenile, side view, x 22, Kas-Antalya, Station 92/24 m.

13. Peneroplis arietinus (Batsch). Side view, x 21, Kas-Antalya, Station 92/24 m.

14. Peneroplis arietinus (Batsch). a, side view, x 35.5 and b, detail view of aperture, x 101, Kalkan-Antalya, Station 15/14 m.

PLATE 3

PLATE 3

Mediterranean Foraminifera

1. Cyclorbiculina compressa (d'Orbigny). Side view, x 12 and 8a enlargement of side view, x 35.5, Kas-

Antalya, Station 63/24 m.

2. Cyclorbiculina compressa (d'Orbigny). a, side view, x 3.6; b, enlargement of side views, b, x 14, Kas-

Antalya, Station 60/21 m.

3. Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg. Peripheral view, x 13 Kas-Antalya, Station 99/24 m.

4. Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg. Side view, x 12.5 Kas-Antalya, Station 99/24 m

5. Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg. Side view, x 11.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 99/24 m.

6. Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg. Enlargement of peripheral view, x 41 Kekova-Antalya, Station 99/24

7. Sorites orbiculus Ehrenberg. Side view, x 9, Kekova-Antalya, Station 91/6 m. 8.Sorites orbiculus Ehrenberg. Side view, x 27.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 131/12 m. 9. Sorites variabilis Lacroix. Side view, x 9, Kas-Antalya, Station 49/14 m.

10. Sorites variabilis Lacroix. edge view, x 16.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 131/12 m.

11. Sorites variabilis Lacroix. Side view, x 13, Kas-Antalya, Station 131/12 m.

12. Pyramidulina catesbyi (d'Orbigny). side view, x 79, Gulf of Iskenderun, Station 95/22 m.

13. Pyramidulina perversa (Schwager). Side view, x 55, Gulf of Izmir, Station 11/24 m.

Besides the rarely observed species, there are some species which locally dominate the foraminifer fauna and have larger populations made up of 50 to 100 individuals per sample, such as, Spiroloculina angulata CUSHMAN, S. antillarum d'ORBIGNY, Hauerina diversa CUSHMAN, Peneroplis arietinus (BATSCH), Amphisorus hemprichii EHRENBERG, Sorites orbiculus EHRENBERG, S. variabilis LACROIX, Amphistegina lobifera LARSEN, Heterostegina depressa d'ORBIGNY (Hottinger, 1977; Baccaert, 1987; Loeblich & Tapan, 1988, 1994; Cimerman & Langer, 1991; Hatta & Ujiie, 1992; Hottinger et al., 1993; Yanko et al., 1993; Yanko, 1995; Av§ar & Yanko, 1995; Yasinsi & Jones, 1995; Av§ar, 1997; Haunold et al., 1997; Hayward et al., 1997, 1999; Langer and Hottinger, 2000; Meri? & Av§ar, 2001; Av§ar et al., 2001; Samir et al., 2003; Meri? et al., 2004 a, b; 2008 a, b, c).

1. Astacolus insolithus (Schwager). Side view, x 38, Gulf of Gokova, Station 3/80.4 m.

2. Astacolus sublegumen (Parr). Side view, x 34, Gulf of Edremit, Station 18/29 m.

3. Favulina melosquamosa (McCulloch). Side view, x 89.5, Dardanelles Strait, Station 7/68 m.

4. Entosigmomorphina sp. a, side view, x 28.5 and b, aperture, x 108.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 131/19 m.

5. Cushmanina striatopunctata (Parker & Jones). Side view, x 45, Dardanelles Strait, Station 2/35 m.

6. Cymbaloporettaplana (Cushman). Spiral side, x 29, Ucadalar-Antalya, Station 119/24 m.

7. Cymbaloporetta plana (Cushman). Edge view, x 57, Kas-Antalya, Station 73/8 m.

8. Cymbaloporetta plana (Cushman). Umblical side, x 41.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 73/8 m.

9. Cymbaloporetta squammosa (d'Orbigny). Edge view, x 48, Kas-Antalya, Station 84/10 m.

10. Cymbaloporetta squammosa (d'Orbigny). Spiral side , x 46, Kas-Antalya, Station 84/12 m.

11. Acervulina inhaerens Schultze. Unattached side view, x 45, Gulf of Saros, Harmantasi locality, central part, 22.1 m.

12. Planogypsina acervalis (Brady). Unattached side view, x 20, Gulf of Saros, Harmantasi Locality, Line

13. Planogypsina acervalis (Brady). Unattached side view, a, x 12 and b, enlargement part of periphery, x

46.5, Gulf of Saros, Harmantasi Locality, Line 4/40 m.

14. Planogypsina squamiformis (Chapman). Unattached side view, x 18, Kas-Antalya, Station 32/22 m.

15. Planogypsina squamiformis (Chapman). Unattached side view, x 12, Kas-Antalya, Station 55/14 m.

Foraminifera test is one of the principal sources of CaCO3 in the tropical and subtropical seas and oceans (Kennett, 1982). The most productive is the genus Amphistegina. Twenty-three percent of the sand in the Hawaiian Islands is composed of Amphistegina tests (Hallock-Muller 1976). This percentage may reach as high as 90 % in certain locations in the Pacific (McKee et al., 1959; Hallock et al., 1995). The foraminifer species are neither toxic nor infectious, thus when compared to the invasive macroscopic aliens, they are considered to be

PLATE 4

PLATE 4

Www Foraminifera Test Aperture

as harmless as sand particles. Most of the alien foraminifer species coexist with other native benthic foraminifer species in the Mediterranean. However two of them, Amphistegina lobifera Larsen and Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg are found to be exceptionally common on the Southwestern coasts of Turkey, enough to change the structure of the native habitat (Figure 1).

PLATE 5

PLATE 5

How Paint Cat Fur

1. Amphistegina lobifera Larsen. Side view and aperture, x 10, Ufadalar-Antalya, Station 127/21 m.

2. Amphistegina lobifera Larsen. Side view, x 10.5, Ucadalar-Antalya, Station 127/21 m.

3. Amphistegina lobifera Larsen. Side view, x 10, Ucadalar-Antalya, Station 127/21 m.

4. Amphistegina lobifera Larsen. equatorial section, x 27.5, Kas-Antalya, Station 43/14 m.

5. Elphidium charlottense (Vella). Side view, x 26, Kekova-Antalya, Station 81/24 m.

6. Elphidium charlottense (Vella). Side view, x 24.5, Kekova-Antalya, Station 101/18 m.

7. Elphidium charlottense (Vella). Side view, x 25, Ucadalar-Antalya, Station 127/18 m.

8. Elphidium striatopunctatum (Fichtel and Moll). Side view, x 33, Gulf of Iskenderun, Station 70/25 m.

9. Elphidium striatopunctatum (Fichtel and Moll). Side view, x 33, Gulf of Iskenderun, Station 70/25 m.

10. Elphidium striatopunctatum (Fichtel and Moll). apertural view, x 39, Gulf of Iskenderun, Station 70/25

11. Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny. Side view, x 9, Besadalar-Antalya, Station 103/12 m.

12. Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny. Side view, x 17.5, Ucadalar-Antalya, Station 127/18 m.

13. Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny. Side view, x 18.5, Ucadalar-Antalya, Station 127/21 m.

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