Conclusion

The results from the experiments indicated that invasive plant E. crassipes has capability for utilizing both nitrate and ammonium for fast growth, of which nitrate is preferred as nitrogen sources. Furthermore, resistance to ammonium toxicity by regulation of ammonium transport and assimilation was revealed in E. crassipes under high ammonium conditions. The effects of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen on growth, and activity of key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in E. crassipes appear to reflect its different adaptability to water conditions which might have evolved as an important strategy of survival of the invasive species in natural environment. E. crassipes which is able to colonize a wide range of water body after a recent natural disturbance in a fresh water ecosystem, must be highly adaptable to different nutrient conditions such as N form. Our study reported here suggested that establishment and expansion of this invasive plant investigated was not likely to be limited by nitrogen forms.

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