Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xv

Introduction xvii

PART ONE: JUPITER 1

1. Jupiter: Fast Facts about a Planet in Orbit 3

Fundamental Information about Jupiter 4

What Makes Gravity? 8

2. The Interior of Jupiter 19

Materials,Temperatures, and Pressures 19

Elements and Isotopes 20

What Is Pressure? 24

Magnetic Field 28

Radio Noise 31

3. Jupiter's Surface Appearance and Conditions 33

Remote Sensing 34

Optical Depth 46

Changes in Jupiter's Surface within Human History: Storms 49

Changes in Jupiter's Surface within Human History: Comet Shoemaker-Levy . . .52

4. Jupiter's Rings and Moons 57

The Surprise of Jupiter's Rings 57

Jupiter's Moons 59

What Are Synchronous Orbits and Synchronous Rotation? 64

Moment of Inertia 80

Rheology, or How Solids Can Flow 92

5. Missions to Jupiter 97

PART TWO: SATURN 103

6. Saturn: Fast Facts about a Planet in Orbit 105

Fundamental Information about Saturn 106

7. Saturn's Interior: Composition and Magnetic Field 113

Structure, Temperature, Pressure 113

Internal Heat Production 114

Magnetic Field 115

8. Saturn's Surface Appearance and Conditions 119

9. Saturn's Rings and Moons 123

Rings 123

Why Are There Rings? 128

Saturn's Moons 133

Giovanni Cassini (1625—1712) 134

Fossa, Sulci, and Other Terms for Planetary Landforms 146

Stable Orbits for Small Bodies among Much Larger Planets 152

10. Missions to Saturn 167

11. Conclusions: The Known and the Unknown 171

Appendix 1: Units and Measurements 175

Fundamental Units 175

Comparisons among Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit 177

Useful Measures of Distance 179

Definitions for Electricity and Magnetism 183

Prefixes 186

Appendix 2: Light,Wavelength, and Radiation 187

Appendix 3: A List of all Known Moons 196

Glossary 198

Bibliography and Further Reading 206

Internet Resources 207

Index 209

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