Preface

The planets Mercury,Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn—all visible to the naked eye—were known to ancient peoples. In fact, the Romans gave these planets their names as they are known today. Mercury was named after their god Mercury, the fleet-footed messenger of the gods, because the planet seems especially fast moving when viewed from Earth.Venus was named for the beautiful goddess Venus, brighter than anything in the sky except the Sun and Moon. The planet Mars appears red even from Earth and so was named after Mars, the god of war. Jupiter was named for the king of the gods, the biggest and most powerful of all, and Saturn was named for Jupiter's father. The ancient Chinese and the ancient Jews recognized the planets as well, and the Maya (250—900 c.e., Mexico and environs) and Aztec (ca. 1100—1700 c.e., Mexico and environs) called the planet Venus "Quetzalcoatl," after their god of good and light.

These planets, small and sometimes faint in the night sky, commanded such importance that days were named after them. The seven-day week originated in Mesopotamia, which was perhaps the world's first organized civilization (beginning around 3500 B.C.E. in modern-day Iraq). The Romans adopted the seven-day week almost 4,000 years later, around 321 c.e., and the concept spread throughout western Europe. Though there are centuries of translations between their original names and current names, Sunday is still named for the Sun, Monday for the Moon, Tuesday for Mars, Wednesday for Mercury,Thursday for Jupiter, Friday for Venus, and Saturday for Saturn. The Germanic peoples substituted Germanic equivalents for the names of four of the Roman gods: For Tuesday, Tiw, the god of war, replaced Mars; for Wednesday,Woden, the god of wisdom, replaced Mercury; for Thursday, Thor, the god of thunder, replaced Jupiter; and for Friday, Frigg, the goddess of love, replaced Venus.

More planets, of course, have been discovered by modern man, thanks to advances in technology. Science is often driven forward by the development of new technology, allowing researchers to make measurements that were previously impossible.The dawn of the new age in astronomy, the study of the solar system, occurred in 1608, when Hans Lippershey, a Dutch eyeglass-maker, attached a lens to each end of a hollow tube, creating the first telescope. Galileo Galilei, born in Pisa, Italy, in 1564, made his first telescope in 1609 from Lippershey's model. Galileo soon had noticed that Venus has phases like the Moon and that Saturn appeared to have "handles." These of course were the edges of Saturn's rings, though the telescope was not strong enough to resolve the rings correctly. In 1610, Galileo discovered four of Jupiter's moons, which are still called the Galilean satellites. These four moons were proof that not every heavenly body orbited the Earth, as Ptolemy, a Greek philosopher, had asserted around 140 c.e. Galileo's discovery was the beginning of the end of the strongly held belief that the Earth is the center of the solar system, as well as a beautiful example of a case where improved technology drove science forward.

Most of the science presented in this set comes from the startling-ly rapid developments of the last hundred years, brought about by technological development. The concept of the Earth-centered solar system is long gone, as is the notion that the "heavenly spheres" are unchanging and perfect. Looking down on the solar system from above the Sun's North Pole, the planets orbiting the Sun can be seen to be orbiting counterclockwise, in the manner of the original proto-planetary disk of material from which they formed. (This is called prograde rotation.) This simple statement, though, is almost the end of generalities about the solar system.The notion of planets spinning on their axes and orbiting around the Sun in an orderly way is incorrect: Some planets spin backward compared to the Earth, others planets are tipped over, and others orbit outside the ecliptic plane (the imaginary plane that contains the Earth's orbit) by substantial angles, the dwarf planet Pluto in particular (see the accompanying figure on obliquity and orbital inclination). Some planets and moons are hot enough to be volcanic, and some produce silicate lava (for example, Jupiter's moon Io), while others have exotic lavas made of molten ices (for example, Neptune's moon Triton). Some planets and even moons have atmospheres, with magnetic fields to protect them from the solar wind (for example, Venus, Earth, Mars, Io, Triton, and Saturn's moon Titan), while other planets have lost both their magnetic fields and their atmospheres and orbit the Sun fully exposed to its radiation and supersonic particles (for example, Mercury).

Size can be unexpected in the solar system: Saturn's moon Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and Charon, Pluto's moon, is almost as big as Pluto itself. The figure on page xii shows the number of moons each planet has; large planets have far more than small planets, and every year scientists discover new celestial bodies orbiting the gas giant planets. Many large bodies orbit in the asteroid belt, or the Kuiper belt, and many sizable asteroids cross the orbits of planets as they make their way around the Sun. Some planets' moons are unstable and will make new ring systems as they crash into their hosts. Many moons, like Neptune's giant Triton, orbit their planets backward (clockwise when viewed from the North Pole, the opposite way that the planets orbit the Sun).Triton also has the coldest surface temperature of any moon or planet, including Pluto, which is much farther from the Sun.The solar system is made of bodies in a continuum of sizes and ages, and every rule has an exception.

Obliquity, orbital inclination, and rotation direction are three physical measurements used to describe a rotating, orbiting body.

Obliquity, Inclination, Rotation

Rotation:

Looking down on the north pole of a planet or moon, rotation in this direction is called direct, or prograde. Rotation in the opposite direction is called indirect, or retrograde; Venus, Uranus, and Pluto all have retrograde rotation.

Pluto

Pluto

inclination:

Pluto's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (the plane of Earth's orbit) by 17.14 degrees; all the other planets have inclinations less than 7 degrees.

Obliquity: / The angle between the planet's equator and its orbital plane is called its obliquity. Pluto's obliquity is 122.5 degrees, Venus's is 177.3 degrees, and Mercury's is 0 degrees,

Obliquity: / The angle between the planet's equator and its orbital plane is called its obliquity. Pluto's obliquity is 122.5 degrees, Venus's is 177.3 degrees, and Mercury's is 0 degrees, inclination:

Pluto's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (the plane of Earth's orbit) by 17.14 degrees; all the other planets have inclinations less than 7 degrees.

Number of Moons v. AU

70

60

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C

0

50

0

O

40

u

u

30

J3

E

3

z

20

10

Q Jupiter

, Saturn

Mars Earth

Mercury q^» Venus

O Pluto

20 30

AU from the Sun

As shown in this graph of number of moons versus planets, the large outer planets have far more moons than the smaller, inner planets or the dwarf planet, Pluto.

Every day new data are streaming back to Earth from space missions to Mars. Early in 2004, scientists proved that there was once standing liquid water on Mars. Another unmanned mission, this time to a comet, determined that the material in a comet's nucleus is as strong as some rocks and not the loose pile of ice and dust expected. Information streams in from space observations and Earth-based experiments, and scientists attempt to explain what they see, producing an equivalent stream of hypotheses about the formation and evolution of the solar system and all its parts.

In this age of constant space missions and discoveries, how can a printed book on the solar system be produced that is not instantly outdated? New hypotheses are typically not accepted immediately by the scientific community. The choice of a leading hypothesis among competing ideas is really a matter of opinion, and arguments can go on for decades. Even when one idea has reached prominence in the scientific community, there will be researchers who disagree with it. At every point along the way, though, there are people writing books about science. Once an explanation reaches the popular press, it is often frozen as perpetual truth and persists for decades, even if the scientific community has long since abandoned that theory.

In this set, some statements will be given as facts: the gravitational acceleration of the Earth, the radius of Mars, the height of prominences from the Sun, for instance. Almost everything else is open to argumentation and change. The numbers of moons known to be orbiting Jupiter and Saturn, for example, are increasing every year as observers are able to detect smaller and dimmer objects. These volumes will present some of the thought processes that have brought people to their conclusions (for example, why scientists state that the Sun is fueled by nuclear reactions), as well as observations of the solar system for which no one has a satisfactory explanation (such as why there is no detectable heat flow out of the gas giant planet Uranus). Science is often taught as a series of facts for memorization—in fact, not until the second half of a doctoral degree do many scientists learn to question all aspects of science, from the accepted theory to the data itself. Readers should feel empowered to question every statement.

The Solar System set explores the vast and enigmatic Sun at the center of the solar system and also covers the planets, examining each and comparing them from the point of view of a planetary scientist. Space missions that produced critical data for the understanding of solar system bodies are introduced in each volume, and their data and images shown and discussed.The volumes The Sun, Mercury, and Venus; The Earth and the Moon; and Mars place emphasis on the areas of unknowns and the results of new space missions. The important fact that the solar system consists of a continuum of sizes and types of bodies is stressed in Asteroids, Meteorites, and Comets. This book discusses the roles of these small bodies as recorders of the formation of the solar system, as well as their threat as impactors of planets. In Jupiter and Saturn, the two largest planets are described and compared. In the final volume, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and the Outer Solar System, Pluto is presented not as the final lonely dwarf planet but as the largest known of a extensive population of icy bodies that reach far out toward the closest stars, in effect linking the solar system to the galaxy itself.

In this set we hope to change the familiar litany Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto into a more complex understanding of the many sizes and types of bodies that orbit the Sun. Even a cursory study of each planet shows its uniqueness along with the great areas of knowledge that are unknown.These titles seek to make the familiar strange again.

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